Types and advantages of energy storage technologies Currently available energy storage technologies include physical energy storage such as water pumping and flywheels, electromagnetic energy storage such as supercapacitors, and battery energy storage based on electrochemical principles. Taking into account factors such as discharge time and cost, batteries have become the first choice for energy storage in photovoltaic power stations . The existing batteries include lead-acid batteries, lithium batteries and all-vanadium flow batteries. Lead-acid batteries have a history of more than 100 years and are widely used due to their low price and stable performance. However, the cycle life of lead-acid batteries is very low, generally 300-600 times; and the environmental pollution caused by lead in the process of battery manufacturing, use and recycling is no longer acceptable to modern society. The all-vanadium flow battery is a new type of energy storage battery. Its power depends on the battery cell area, the number of stack layers and the number of series and parallel connections, and the capacity depends on the volume of the electrolyte. It is suitable for large-capacity energy storage and has almost no self Discharge, long cycle life. All vanadium redox flow batteries are very expensive, and their conversion efficiency and stability need to be improved. Moreover, all vanadium redox batteries need pumps for fluid control, which increases the cost . Lithium batteries have high single voltage, wide operating temperature range, high specific energy and efficiency, and low self-discharge rate. The use of protection and equalization circuits can improve safety and life. Therefore, combining the advantages and disadvantages of various batteries, lithium batteries have become the first choice for energy storage power stations due to the relatively mature industrial chain, safety, reliability, and environmental friendliness. The key technology of lithium battery energy storage The lithium battery management system (BMS) is necessary for lithium battery pack
work. First of all, because lithium batteries are strictly prohibited from overcharging or discharging, they must be equipped with protective equipment to ensure the safety of all batteries. On the other hand, because the nominal voltage of the single lithium battery is only 3.2-3.7V, in order to be suitable for a variety of loads, it must be combined in series and parallel; due to the differences between the individual batteries, the performance of the battery pack is showing a downward trend , For example, the service life is significantly reduced compared with the single use. Therefore, a complete BMS system not only includes protection technology, but also a reasonable balance plan for specific applications, so that the difference of each lithium battery cell fluctuates within a reasonable range, and ensures the safe and efficient work of the battery pack . The state of charge (SOC) can accurately characterize the remaining battery power. A reasonable SOC estimation is a prerequisite for predicting battery working time and avoiding overshoot and overdischarge. It is a necessary function of BMS; due to the complexity of the battery model, the SOC estimation is very Complicated and commonly used methods have their rationality, but they also have major flaws. Temperature is also an important factor affecting the working efficiency of lithium batteries. Temperature has a great impact on the battery's discharge capacity, internal resistance, and open circuit voltage; especially at low temperatures, the discharge capacity can even drop to about half of that at room temperature. Therefore, a complete BMS system should also have an intelligent temperature control function to expand the application environment . In addition, a complete BMS system should also include auxiliary functions such as parameter display, data communication, and fault alarms, as shown in Figure 1. u003c/pu003e
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