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Basic knowledge of battery battery principle (what is battery, battery classification, chemical principle, main structure)

by:dcfpower     2021-03-12
1. What is a battery? u003cpu003eBattery is a chemical power source, a device that directly converts chemical energy into electrical energy. It is composed of two electrochemically active electrodes with different components, respectively, composed of positive and negative electrodes. The two electrodes are immersed in an electrolyte that can provide media conduction. When connected to an external carrier, the internal chemical energy is converted to provide electrical energy. . u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eu003c/pu003e2. Classification of batteriesu003cpu003eA. Classified by nature of work:u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e(1) Primary battery: also known as primary battery, refers to a battery that cannot be recharged after being discharged and can be used continuously. If the electrolyte does not flow in the primary battery, it is called a dry battery. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e Such as: zinc-manganese dry battery, zinc-mercury battery, lithium battery pack. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e(2) Storage battery: also known as secondary battery, it refers to the battery that can be recharged and used continuously after the battery is discharged. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eSuch as lead-acid batteries, cadmium-nickel batteries, hydrogen-nickel batteries, lithium-ion batteriesu003c/pu003eu003cpu003e(3) Reserve batteries: also known as activated batteries. A battery that is in an inert state during work and can be stored for a long time. When it needs to work, it is activated to make it into a discharged state. (Before use, temporarily inject electrolyte or use other methods to activate the battery.u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eFor example: magnesium -Silver battery lead-perchloric acid batteryu003c/pu003eu003cpu003e(4) Fuel cell: This type of battery is also called continuous battery, which is a battery that continuously injects active materials into the battery to make it discharge continuously.u003c/pu003eu003c pu003e Such as: hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell; hydrazine-air fuel cellu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eB. Classified by electrolyte properties:u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eAccording to electrolyte properties, it can be divided into acid batteries (lead-acid batteries), Alkaline batteries (nickel hydrogen batteries), neutral batteries, organic electrolyte batteries (lithium ion batteries, such as Li-MnO2), non-aqueous inorganic electrolyte batteries (Li-SOCL2 lithium-thionyl chloride) and solid electrolyte batteries.u003c/p u003eu003cpu003eC. According to the storage method of the active material:u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e According to the storage method of the active material, it can be divided into: the active material is stored on the electrode, and there are two kinds of primary battery and secondary battery; Substances are stored outside the battery, and the electrodes are passed through when used. There are non-renewable fuel cells and regenerative batteries. In addition, some people divide the batteries into high-capacity batteries, sealed batteries, maintenance-free batteries, explosion-proof batteries, etc. according to the characteristics of the batteries u003c/pu003e3. What are the similarities and differences between the primary battery and the secondary battery? u003cpu003eThe primary battery can only be discharged once, and the secondary battery can be repeatedly charged and discharged. The volume and structure of the electrode when the rechargeable battery is discharged Reversible changes occur during the design. Therefore, these changes must be adjusted during the design. The internal of the primary battery is much simpler, because it does not need to adjust these reversible changes. The mass specific capacity and volume specific capacity of the primary battery are larger than those of ordinary rechargeable batteries, but the internal The resistance (0.2-0.5Ω) is much larger than that of secondary batteries, so the load capacity is lower. In addition, the self-discharge of primary batteries is much smaller than that of secondary batteries.u003c/pu003e4. What is the electrochemical principle of nickel-cadmium batteries?u003c pu003eNickel-cadmium batteries use Ni(OH)2 as the positive electrode, CdO as the negative electrode, and lye (mainly KOH) as the electrolyte.u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eWhen the nickel-cadmium battery is charged, the positive electrode reacts as follows: Ni(OH) 2 –e + OH- → NiOOH + H2O The reaction of the negative electrode: Cd(OH)2 + 2e → Cd + 2OH- The total reaction is: 2Ni(OH)2 + Cd(OH)2→ 2NiOOH+ Cd+ 2H2Ou003c/pu003e u003cpu003eWhen discharging, the reaction proceeds in the reverse direction. NiOOH + H2O + e→ Ni(OH)2 + OH- Cd + 2OH- + 2e→ Cd(OH)2 When charging, as the concentration of NiOOH increases, Ni(OH) 2 As the concentration decreases, the positive electrode potential gradually As Cd increases and Cd(OH)2 decreases, the potential of the negative electrode gradually decreases. When the battery is fully charged, both the positive and negative potentials reach an equilibrium value. The difference between the two potentials is the charge of the battery Voltage. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eu003c/pu003e 5. What is the electrochemical principle of Ni-MH battery? Ni-MH batteries use the same Ni oxide as the nickel-cadmium battery as the positive electrode, hydrogen storage metal as the negative electrode, and lye (mainly KOH) as the electrolyte. When the nickel-hydrogen battery is charged, the positive electrode reacts as follows: Ni(OH)2 – e + OH- → NiOOH + H2O negative electrode reaction: MHn + ne → M + n/2H2 when discharging, positive electrode: NiOOH + H2O + e → Ni(OH)2 + OH- negative electrode: M + n/2H2 → MHn + ne u003cpu003eu003c/pu003e 6. What is the main structure of the battery? u003cpu003eThe main components of the battery are: positive electrode sheet, negative electrode sheet, separator paper, cap, casing, and insulating layer. u003c/pu003eu003c/pu003e
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