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Battery tricky: How much do you know about 18650 and polymer batteries?

by:dcfpower     2021-03-08
u003cpu003eu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eFrom left to right are standard 18650 lithium batteries, aluminum-plastic composite film-encapsulated lithium-ion batteries, and multi-rate lithium-ion batteries used for emergency power supplyu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eu003c /pu003eu003cpu003eFigure 13.7V/5000mAh soft pack polymer power: 10.5Whu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eFigure 2 3575175 represents battery size: 3.5mmX75mmX175mmu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eu003c /pu003eu003cpu003eFigure 3 Voltage: 11.1V is the result of plastic packaging of 3 3.7V cells in seriesu003c/pu003eOne of the tricks: Confused battery typeu003cpu003e   For readers who are not familiar with the principle of lithium ion battery technology That said, 18650 lithium battery and lithium polymer battery are probably the two most frequently heard words. Many businesses will boast polymer batteries to the sky when promoting their products and step on the 18650 battery. This is not very rigorous. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e   In fact, the principles of different types of batteries are basically the same. They all have a positive electrode, a negative electrode and an electrolyte. At present, the nominal voltage of a single cell of mainstream lithium batteries is generally 3.7V, and the positive electrode material is generally lithium cobalt oxide, Nickel cobalt lithium manganate (also called ternary material), lithium iron phosphate or lithium manganate, etc. The anode material is generally graphite, and the electrolyte is generally a lithium hexafluorophosphate solution. The industry usually uses the dimensions of lithium batteries to identify battery models. Lithium batteries can be divided into many types according to different rules: such as high-voltage lithium batteries distinguished by voltage, standard voltage lithium batteries, standard batteries distinguished by discharge rate (maximum 1C discharge), Rate batteries (discharge greater than 1C), as well as pure lithium cobalt oxide batteries, ternary lithium batteries, and lithium iron batteries (that is, iron batteries with independent intellectual property rights from a certain factory) distinguished by cathode materials. Lithium-ion batteries that are widely mentioned are mostly classified according to the packaging material of the casing, such as steel casing encapsulation represented by 18650 and early mobile phone batteries encapsulated in aluminum casing. The mainstream is the lithium battery pack encapsulated by aluminum-plastic composite film, which we call lithium polymer battery or soft package battery. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e  It is not difficult to identify the battery used in the device. The 18mm diameter and thickness of the 18650 battery is destined to be greater than 18mm and longer than 65mm. However, the lower cost of 18650 determines its market share, so you can choose 18650 if you want to be cheap, and lithium polymer batteries if you want to be thin and light. u003c/pu003eTricky two: Capacity labeling without disciplineu003cpu003e   I don’t know when it will start. Many people always think that the bigger the battery is, the higher the battery capacity, the better, but is there really such a large capacity battery? ? For the 18650 battery mentioned above, the maximum capacity of a single 18650 product of a large imported brand can be reached by mass production up to now is 4100mAh, while domestic products generally hover around 2600mAh. According to the currently generally marked total capacity, taking 20000mAh as an example, even if imported products are used, five parallel processes are required, not to mention more series and parallel connections for domestic products. Small, light, and portable. You can use a 30,000mAh battery at any time, and a 50,000mAh battery pack. You can tell at a glance that it is foolish. What's even more annoying is to mislead consumers with the product model. Product model, not power bank capacity. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eThe series-parallel combination of   18650 batteries has high requirements for the consistency of the battery itself. If a single battery has internal problems, such as a low voltage in one of the batteries in the battery pack, it will inevitably pull down the entire battery pack. Voltage value and increase the internal resistance. If you still use the original current and voltage for charging, it is very likely to cause the battery to heat and explode. This is also the case for the aluminum-plastic soft-packaged lithium polymer battery, but compared to the 18650 lithium battery pack packaged in a steel shell, Lithium polymer batteries will not explode, but they will inevitably burn. Therefore, the battery capacity marked on the product is not as big as possible. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e   In addition, even if it meets the capacity mark, how much power can actually be provided? In order to explain this trick more intuitively, let's talk about the close relative of the emergency power supply-the power bank. The capacity of the battery represents the amount of electricity that the battery itself can provide. Just like a pool, the larger the pool, the greater the water storage capacity. The charging and discharging process is like the process of storing and discharging water in a pool. There must be a pressure difference to form a water flow. To charge a 3.7V battery, the 3.7V voltage will definitely not be able to charge it, and a higher voltage must be required. The power bank marked 10000mAh on the market uses a standard voltage battery of 3.7V. When you need to charge a device with the same built-in 3.7V battery (currently, most devices using lithium batteries have the same 3.7 voltage). It must be boosted to 5V (USB interface standard voltage, except for USB-C). The conversion rate of the battery with a booster plate is 91% during conversion (this is still a good battery). In fact, the power that the power bank can provide The formula is as follows:u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e  Cu003dC1×(3.7u0026pide;5)×0.91u003d10000mAh×0.74×0.91u003d6734mAh   (where C represents 5V effective output capacity, C1 represents battery capacity)u003c/pu003eu003cp u003e   That is to say, the power bank with a nominal capacity of 10000mAh battery in actual use can only provide output power of 6700mAh according to the optimal calculation. Don’t be fooled in the future. Conscience merchants will mark the battery on the product. The effective output capacity (actual usable capacity) is marked along with the capacity.u003c/pu003eThe third trick: the blind spot of the rate batteryu003cpu003e  The discharge rate of the lithium battery, we generally use the letter'C' to indicate the The maximum discharge current of the battery is 1 times discharge,u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e  
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