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Causes of fire and explosion of lithium batteries

by:dcfpower     2021-03-03
u003cpu003e When charging a lithium battery pack, when the voltage rises, the positive and negative electrodes become extremely strong redox states, so the material tends to become unstable. u003c/pu003e (1) Overcharge. Charging for longer than the specified time is called overcharging. 'The battery generates heat and flammable gas from the electrolyte. Generally speaking, in an overcharged battery, the reduction reaction of the electrolyte and the negative electrode occurs first, and then the thermal decomposition of the electrolyte' Between the electrolyte and the positive electrode u003cpu003eFigure 7 Overview of the lithium polymer batteryu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eFigure 8 Structure of the lithium polymer batteryu003c/pu003e Oxidative decomposition 'Thermal decomposition of the negative electrode' The thermal decomposition of the positive electrode' Finally An internal short circuit is caused by the melt flow of the separator. Positive electrode: Heat is generated by the oxidation of the electrolyte and the destruction of the crystal structure. Negative electrode: precipitation of metallic lithium. (2) Over discharge. Too much discharge is called 'overdischargePositive electrode: the smelting of cobalt. Negative electrode: the elution of the current collector (copper). In short, in either case, the electrodes, electrolyte, and separator are melted due to heat, causing internal short circuits. The Joule heat generated at this time spreads everywhere, and finally hits the flammable electrolyte (or the flammable gas generated) and catches fire. When heated from the outside due to a fire or the like, the positive electrode material, electrolyte, and negative electrode material are separate and generate heat reactions with each other inside the battery. The separator melts and the electrodes are short-circuited. At this time, Joule heat begins to spread everywhere. In addition, when the insulators and separators of the electrodes are damaged due to external shocks, they will not catch fire, but internal short-circuits and fires may sometimes occur during charging. Due to the high energy density, the temperature rises sharply during a short circuit, and the electrolyte becomes an organic solvent, which is easy to catch fire. u003c/pu003e
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