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Characteristics, performance and advantages of lithium batteries

by:dcfpower     2021-03-15
Lithium batteries have attracted people's great interest and attention due to their high specific energy, long cycle life, wide operating temperature range and other characteristics. What is particularly attractive is that the average price of batteries per cycle is not high, and, Shows a downward trend. The advantages and characteristics of lithium batteries are described in more detail below. Compared with other high-energy secondary batteries (such as Ni-Cd batteries, Ni-MH batteries, etc.), lithium-ion batteries have significant performance advantages, mainly in the following aspects. (1) High working voltage. Carbon lithium intercalation compounds such as graphite or petroleum coke are used as the negative electrode instead of lithium metal, which will reduce the battery voltage. But because of their low lithium insertion potential, the voltage loss can be reduced to a minimum. At the same time, choosing a suitable lithium intercalation compound as the battery positive electrode and choosing a suitable electrolyte system (which determines the electrochemical window of the lithium battery) can make the lithium battery have a higher working voltage (-4V), which is much higher than that of the aqueous system battery . (2) Large specific capacity Although replacing metal lithium with carbonaceous materials will reduce the specific capacity of the material, in fact, in order to ensure a certain cycle life of the lithium metal secondary battery, the negative metal lithium is usually more than three times excessive Therefore, the actual decrease in the mass specific capacity of the lithium battery is not large, and the volume specific capacity hardly decreases. (3) High energy density and higher working voltage and volumetric specific capacity determine the higher energy density of secondary lithium batteries. Compared with the widely used Ni-Cd batteries and Ni-MH batteries, secondary lithium has the highest power density and still has great potential for development. (4) Good safety performance and long cycle life. The reason why batteries using lithium metal as anode are unsafe is that multiple charge and discharge changes the structure of the positive electrode of lithium ion batteries, forming porous dendrites. When the temperature rises, it interacts with the electrolyte. A violent exothermic reaction occurs, and dendrites can pierce the diaphragm, causing an internal short circuit. Lithium batteries do not have this problem and are very safe. In order to avoid the presence of metallic lithium in the battery, the voltage must be controlled when charging. For safety reasons, the lithium battery pack is equipped with multiple safety devices. During the charging and discharging process of the lithium battery pack, there is no structural change in the insertion and deintercalation of lithium ions on the cathode and anode (the lattice will expand and contract during the insertion and deintercalation process), and because the lithium intercalation compound is more than metal lithium It is stable and does not form lithium dendrites during charging and discharging, thus significantly improving the safety performance of the battery, and the cycle life is also greatly improved. Lithium batteries were excluded as dangerous goods by the Dangerous Goods Transportation Division of the U.S. Department of Transportation and IAIT (International Aviation and Transportation Association) in 1989 and 1990, respectively. (5) Low self-discharge rate adopts non-aqueous electrolyte system, and lithium-intercalated carbon material is thermodynamically unstable in non-aqueous electrolyte system. During the first charge and discharge process, the reduction of the electrolyte will form a solid electrolyte intermediate ((S EI) film on the surface of the carbon negative electrode, allowing lithium ions to pass but not allowing electrons to pass, and making the electrodes of different charged states active The substance is in a relatively stable state, so it has a low self-discharge rate. (6) Clean and pollution-free lithium batteries do not contain toxic substances such as lead, blessing, mercury, etc., and because the battery must be well sealed, it is extremely Very little gas is released and does not pollute the environment. The solvent used to dissolve the binder in the manufacturing process can also be completely recovered. Large-scale lithium battery manufacturers such as Sony have successively started the recycling of lithium batteries since 1997. Material (such as metal drill, etc.) regeneration cycle work. In addition, in 1996, Sony’s lithium battery pack was certified to meet the IS014001 international environmental standard [71O(7). The current efficiency is high. It is different from any previous aqueous system secondary battery. No gas is generated during the normal charge and discharge process, and the current efficiency is close to 100%. This property is particularly suitable for use as a battery pack for power storage and conversion. Please indicate that the article is from an electronic lithium battery:u003c/pu003e
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