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Definition, characteristics and classification of lithium polymer batteries

by:dcfpower     2021-03-11
As a green energy developed in the middle of the 20th century, lithium-ion batteries have the following advantages over traditional lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen and other secondary batteries: high voltage (working voltage is greater than 3.6 V, higher than the 2.0 V of lead-acid batteries , Nickel-hydrogen, nickel-cadmium battery 1.2 V), high specific energy (volume specific energy and mass specific energy), wide operating temperature range, long cycle life, environmental protection, no memory effect, low self-discharge rate and large current charge and discharge And other advantages [1]. (LIB), also known as lithium ion battery, is a kind of positive electrode (lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganate oxide, lithium ferrite oxide, lithium iron phosphate oxide, etc.) , Rechargeable battery composed of negative electrode (graphite, soft carbon, hard carbon, etc.), electrolyte, polymer separator and protective circuit. In practical applications, from power sources as small as mobile phones, MP3/MP4, etc., to battery packs for electric vehicles, considering its superior performance, lithium-ion batteries will undoubtedly become the wisest choice. In fact, a lithium battery pack is a battery with a difference in lithium ion concentration. There are two compounds that can reversibly insert and extract lithium ions on the positive and negative electrodes. When the electric energy is released, Li+ is deintercalated in the negative electrode, flows through the electrolyte and is inserted into the positive electrode, making the positive electrode in a high lithium state. On the contrary, Li+ is deintercalated in the positive electrode and inserted into the negative electrode through the electrolyte, and the positive electrode is in a low lithium state. It is precisely because in this process, lithium ions circulate between the positive and negative ends, so lithium-ion batteries are called rocking chair batteries [2]. When the charge and discharge are normal, the interlayer structure of carbon materials and layered Lithium ions will be inserted and extracted between the layers of the structured oxide, which usually only causes the interlayer spacing to change, the crystal structure will not be destroyed, and the chemical structure of the negative electrode material is basically unchanged. In view of the reversibility of its charge and discharge, lithium ion batteries The reaction is the reversible reaction of lithium [3], which can be said to be another major feature of lithium ion batteries. 1. The definition of lithium polymer batteries The three elements of a general battery: positive electrode, negative electrode and electrolyte. The so-called lithium polymer A battery refers to a battery system that uses polymer materials for at least one or more of the three elements. In the current lithium polymer battery system, most polymer materials are used in the positive electrode and electrolyte. The positive electrode material is Conductive polymer or inorganic compounds used in general lithium-ion batteries, the negative electrode often uses lithium metal or lithium-carbon intercalation compound, the electrolyte is solid or colloidal polymer electrolyte, or organic electrolyte. Because there is no lithium polymer Excess electrolyte, so it is more reliable and stable. 2. Features of lithium polymer battery Li-polymer battery (Li-polymer, also known as polymer lithium ion battery) has high specific energy, miniaturization and ultra-thin Various advantages such as chemical, lightweight and high safety. Based on these advantages, lithium polymer batteries can be made into batteries of any shape and capacity to meet the needs of various products; and it uses aluminum-plastic packaging, causing internal problems It can be shown immediately through the outer packaging. Even if there is a safety hazard, it will not explode, but will only swell. In polymer batteries, the electrolyte plays the dual function of a separator and electrolyte: on the one hand, it separates the positive and negative materials like a separator. , So that there is no self-discharge and short circuit inside the battery. On the other hand, it conducts lithium ions between the positive and negative electrodes like an electrolyte. The polymer electrolyte not only has good conductivity, but also has the unique light weight of polymer materials. , Good elasticity, easy to form film, etc., also conform to the development trend of light weight, safety, high efficiency, and environmental protection of chemical power sources. 3. Classification of lithium polymer batteries Lithium polymer batteries can be divided into three categories according to electrolytes: (1) Gel polymer electrolyte [11] Lithium ion battery, which is to add additives to solid polymer electrolyte to improve ion conductivity, so that the battery can be used at room temperature; (2) Solid polymer electrolyte lithium ion battery, the electrolyte is polymer The mixture with salt has low ionic conductivity at room temperature and is suitable for high-temperature use; (3) Lithium ion battery with composite gel polymer cathode material, conductive polymer as cathode material, its specific energy is the existing lithium ion battery It is the latest generation of lithium-ion batteries. Due to various reasons such as technology, lithium polymer batteries are currently focused on the low-current charging and discharging characteristics of small-capacity batteries. The charging protection circuit is immature [20]. Once the charging, equalization and protection circuit problems of large-capacity lithium polymer batteries are solved, Then the polymer lithium battery pack will be better applied to electric mopeds. Therefore, increasing the research on lithium polymer has significant social and economic benefits, and there are also other aspects of potential significance. u003c/pu003e
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