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Design Ideas of Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Management System

by:dcfpower     2021-03-15

In order to ensure the safety and reliability of the lithium iron phosphate battery pack, the battery management system is a very necessary technology. The battery management also provides an interface for interaction with external systems, such as charging power, switching devices, and negative wear And data display equipment.

A battery management system turns a group of 'dumb' batteries into a smart battery pack.

The rapid development of electric vehicles in automobile manufacturing plants and related manufacturers has benefited from the higher performance and more complete functions provided by the battery management system. The management of management can be divided into two sciences, battery monitoring and battery control; the monitoring part includes voltage and temperature measurement and battery balance.

These are the basic attributes of a battery management system.

Although the lithium iron phosphate battery is still safe under abuse conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, squeeze, and needle sticks, it will greatly affect the cycle life of the battery. The production process of lithium iron phosphate batteries is more complicated, and the consistency of single cells will be greater than that of sealed valve-regulated lead-acid batteries. This causes the voltage of individual cells in the battery pack to rise rapidly in the later stage of charging, and the communication room is unmanned for a long time. The on-duty status is not easy to find in time.

As a result, the life of the lithium iron phosphate battery pack is shortened or damaged. In order to avoid the occurrence of the above phenomenon, a power management system is required to ensure the safety and reliability of the battery.

Battery Management System (BMS) is the core component of battery protection and management, not only to ensure the safe and reliable use of the battery, but also to give full play to the performance of the battery and prolong its service life. As the backup electric energy for communication, the management system acts as a bridge between the high-voltage DC power supply and the battery. The requirements for the battery management system must meet the requirements of the communication power supply system, so the safety management mode of the battery management system is very important to the safety of the battery. The battery management system mainly includes a data acquisition unit, a calculation and control unit, a balance unit, a control execution unit and a communication unit. As shown below.

(1) The basic function of the battery management system

①Monitor the working conditions of the side cells, such as detecting the voltage, charge and discharge current of each cell, and the battery pack Ambient temperature, etc.;

②Protect the battery to avoid shortened battery life and battery damage under extreme conditions.

(2) The main function of the battery management system

①Overvoltage protection

When the charging voltage of the single battery exceeds the allowable value, the charging will be stopped immediately and the Open the connection between the charging device and the battery pack:

②Over-discharge alarm

When the discharge voltage of the single battery is lower than the warning value, a general reminder will be issued;

②Over-discharge protection

When the discharge voltage of the single battery is lower than the protection value, immediately stop the discharge, disconnect the electrical equipment from the battery pack, and give an alarm;

④Overcurrent alarm

When the battery pack input or the output current exceeds the warning value, an alarm will be issued;

③Short circuit protection

When the battery is short-circuited, immediately stop discharging, disconnect the electrical equipment from the battery, and give a reply prompt;

⑥Over-temperature alarm

When the battery temperature or the ambient temperature When the warning value is exceeded, an alarm prompt will be issued:

⑥Over-temperature alarm

When the battery temperature or ambient temperature exceeds the warning value, an alarm prompt will be issued.

⑦Over-temperature protection

When it is detected that the ambient temperature or the internal temperature of the battery pack exceeds the protection value, immediately disconnect the charging or the connection between the electrical equipment and the battery pack, accompanied by Alarm prompt. When the ambient temperature or the internal temperature of the battery pack returns to the allowable value, the battery management function can be restored manually or automatically, but it does not affect the battery discharge function; 8. Estimate the battery pack SOC SOC (StateOf Charge, the state of charge of the battery), that is, the remaining battery power. Keep the SOC within a reasonable range. Prevent damage to the battery due to overcharge or overdischarge, and predict the remaining capacity of the battery at any time;

9. Balance the cells in the battery pack

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Due to the complex manufacturing process of lithium iron phosphate batteries and the relative activity of lithium ions, the voltages of the single cells in the battery pack are inconsistent. Perform equalizing charging of the single cells in the battery pack to make the single cells in the battery pack reach a balanced and consistent state, which can effectively extend the service life of the battery pack and greatly improve the efficiency of the battery pack (this function can be based on User requirements increase or decrease).

10 Parallel Port Communication

Provide an interface for communication with the base station monitoring system, transmit and display battery pack status, report, SOC and other information to realize remote monitoring and management intervention.

It is worth noting that the OEM level and price of most major component suppliers of electric vehicles are still not satisfactory in the market. The investment in electrified energy and the improvement of the battery management system that are constantly pouring into the battery market are the keys to the safety, efficiency and reasonable cost of the battery!


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