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Discussion on the detection of safety protection performance of lithium ion battery

by:dcfpower     2021-03-07
Abstract: In today's society, people's awareness of environmental protection is getting stronger and stronger. Under the background of pursuing high utilization of resources, lithium-ion rechargeable batteries have become a hot topic of attention. The testing of safety protection performance in various performance testing of lithium-ion batteries is a very important part. This article expounds the current status of lithium-ion batteries, the connotation of safety protection performance, and analyzes the factors that affect the safety protection performance of lithium-ion, and on this basis, proposes new ideas about lithium-ion safety performance detection. Keywords: lithium-ion battery; safety; protection performance 1. The development status of lithium-ion battery and the connotation of safety protection performance. Advances in technology have brought about continuous improvement of people's living standards, and mobile phones have become an indispensable portable in people's lives article. As currently the most widely used and best-performing mobile phone battery, lithium-ion batteries have huge advantages in terms of technical evaluation and price. Lithium ion battery uses lithium ion as the basic raw material. It is a smart battery with high energy density. It can be easily exchanged with the original charger, so it can be charged in the shortest time, while the life cycle is maintained for a long time. The capacity can also be maintained at a larger level. The characteristics of lithium ion also determine that it has many disadvantages: (1) High energy density will cause thermal runaway when abused, and a large amount of heat will be released in a short time, which is easy to cause explosion; (2) The electrolyte system uses hydrocarbons. As a solvent, when the external pressure is 4.6V, the oxidation reaction of the hydrocarbon organic solvent will cause flammability. Once the solvent leaks, the lithium battery pack will catch fire and cause an explosion in severe cases; (3) The charge and discharge process will cause the positive electrode of the battery Changes in the chemical properties of materials cause strong oxidation, and contact with hydrocarbon organic solvents will produce strong oxidation reactions, the generated heat will accumulate, the temperature will easily rise, and an explosion will occur due to out of control.   The massive use of lithium-ion batteries and their own safety features have resulted in an increasing number of safety incidents caused by lithium-ion batteries. Product recalls in import and export markets due to battery quality continue to occur. Li-ion safety testing should have higher requirements to ensure the quality of lithium-ion batteries on the market and reduce the occurrence of safety accidents.  2. Factors affecting the safety protection performance of lithium-ion batteries and evaluation   The safety of lithium-ion batteries is defined as the ability to suppress unsafe behaviors such as machinery, heat, and light energy caused by initial external disturbances. The factors affecting safety can be divided into internal and external parts.   (1) Factors affecting the safety and protection of lithium-ion batteries    1. Internal factors    positive electrode materials, negative electrode materials, electrolyte materials and separator materials can all affect the safety performance of lithium-ion batteries. Lithium ion cathode materials are generally intercalation compounds. At high temperatures, the positive electrode material may be thermally decomposed, and lithium ions are released from the positive electrode material during high-voltage overcharge, generating heat, which cannot be ruled out causing thermal runaway. The negative electrode material is easy to accumulate to form lithium dendrites, the separator is pierced, and flammable gas is easily formed. The organic electrolyte used in lithium-ion batteries burns easily. If the separator material is unstable, there are spots, it is easy to be pierced, and short-circuit with the positive electrode.  2. External factors   External factors are usually serious overcharge, overdischarge, local battery temperature too high or internal short circuit of the battery, etc., usually caused by improper operation. Man-made abuse of lithium-ion batteries can cause fires and explosions.   (2) Evaluation of factors influencing the safety and protection performance of lithium-ion batteries    There are many factors that can affect the safety performance of lithium-ion batteries. Only after analyzing the composition of complex systems can we understand how to establish key detection technologies.  1. Decomposition of influencing factors    The factors that cause the safety performance of lithium-ion batteries can be decomposed from the inside to the outside: design and manufacturing level and use level. The design and manufacturing level includes positive and negative electrode materials, electrolyte solutions, separator materials and various packaging characteristics materials, the reaction and balance characteristics between various materials, and the design of internal safety protection circuits. The use level is divided into abuse (mechanical stress, improper storage, etc.) and fatigue use (excessive circulation and destruction of electrolyte materials).  2. Evaluation of influencing factors   For the analysis of lithium ion accidents, it is known that due to the uncertainty of electrochemical characteristics and chemical reactions, accidents are only easy to cause when the storage, transportation and use conditions cannot be tolerated. Even if the battery has loopholes in the design or production process, as long as it can withstand the relevant use environment, there will be no accidents. On the contrary, if the lithium-ion battery is designed and manufactured perfectly and conforms to the specifications, but it happens that 'a certain piece of battery with uneven structure or conforming to the standard has been recycled for many times, it is very likely to cause an accident.    Three, lithium-ion battery safety protection performance test ( 1) Current status of lithium battery pack safety performance testing The current domestic and foreign regulations for lithium-ion safety testing focus on transportation safety, and the content of defects is that there is no specific quantitative index, which is not conducive to the detection of potential dangers. In recent years, battery recalls have occurred In the event, domestic and foreign research on more scientific and efficient means of detecting the safety performance of lithium-ion is continuously making progress, especially the research on thermal effects and temperature is constantly deepening, detecting heat and thermal conductivity during charging and discharging, and establishing electrochemical and thermal effects The theoretical model describes the thermal behavior of the battery by simulating temperature.  
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