Structure and functional block diagram Smart batteries can be divided into two parts, low-temperature lithium batteries and management systems. Figure 3.5 shows a schematic diagram of the smart battery structure. The battery part is composed of 4 groups of batteries in series, each group of batteries contains 8 parallel 2.5Ah single lithium batteries. The protection function of the management system is completed by the two protection actuators of the positive and negative current loops. The protection actuator at the positive end is realized by an independent dedicated IC, which constitutes the second line of defense for the protection function'. u003cpu003eFigure 3.5 Schematic diagram of smart battery structureu003c/pu003eu003cpu003e According to the definition of system function, the functional block diagram of smart battery can be represented by Figure 3.6. The management system can be divided into detection mechanism, judgment and decision-making mechanism, power estimation mechanism, information Exchange and storage mechanism, execution mechanism, equalization mechanism. The detection mechanism completes the functions of current sensing, voltage acquisition and temperature detection. The power estimation mechanism is the current data provided by the detection mechanism, combined with the current status of the battery, through a set of algorithm processes Estimate the remaining power. The judgment and decision-making body is used to determine whether there are abnormal conditions such as over-current, over-voltage, over-discharge, and over-temperature, and make decisions based on the condition of the battery to control the actuator. The actuator realizes the charging and discharging path Conduction and disconnection. The information exchange and storage mechanism is used to complete the function of information exchange with meters and equipment and the recording of abnormal information. During the charging process, the equalization mechanism can eliminate the inconsistent charging speed of each battery cell caused by the difference of the battery cells
u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eFigure 3.6 Functional block diagram of smart batteryu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eSystem workflowu003cpu003e According to the function module, the system can be divided into abnormal monitoring module, abnormal processing module, communication and recording module, power Estimation module and low-power management module, Figure 3.7 shows the working flow chart of the smart battery. According to the characteristics of the battery parameters, the monitoring parameters can be divided into two categories: fast response parameters and slow response parameters. Fast response includes charging current And discharge current, the values u200bu200bof these two parameters will suddenly change due to improper operation or sudden conditions in the external environment, which requires the system to have a very fast response speed to ensure that it can deal with it in time when there is an abnormal current. Slow response Contains two parameters: battery cell voltage and battery temperature. The voltage fluctuation of the battery cell is mainly caused by the charging and discharging of the battery, and the value is relatively stable for a certain period of time. The larger the battery capacity, the slower the voltage changes, and the charging The situation is just the opposite. The change in battery temperature is mainly caused by the insertion and deintercalation of lithium ions in the positive and negative electrodes during the charging and discharging of the battery. In the event of a short circuit or a large current abnormal situation, the internal resistance of the battery may also function Causes an instantaneous temperature rise, but this abnormality can be prevented by monitoring the current. According to the characteristics of fast response and slow response, when designing the system, the monitoring is divided into continuous monitoring and periodic monitoring. The continuous monitoring function requires all-weather Therefore, the design of this part of the system needs to pay great attention to the design of low power consumption; periodic monitoring is an intermittent working mode, and the length of the working cycle can be considered by combining power consumption and circuit accuracy.u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e u003cpu003eFigure 3.7 Schematic diagram of the smart battery workflowu003c/pu003eu003cpu003e The low-power management module is the core part of the energy-saving system. It controls when all functional modules start working and when they stop working. As mentioned above Arrived The continuous monitoring function needs to work around the clock, so it is not managed by the low-power management module; the periodic monitoring function is determined by the low-power management module to determine the initial working time. The working process is roughly as follows: The low-power management module first waits for the arrival of the monitoring period, turns on the periodic monitoring module, and at the same time transmits the monitored data to the abnormal handling module and the power estimation function module. The abnormal processing module makes corresponding processing according to the feedback result of the monitoring and records it in the memory. Peripheral devices can read these abnormal logs. Based on the current data provided by the monitoring, the power estimation function module begins to perform integral statistics on the flow of power consumption, thereby estimating the remaining power and remaining battery life. These two estimation results are reported to the instrument regularly to ensure that the smart battery will not be forced to shut down due to low voltage. u003c/pu003eu003c/pu003eu003c/pu003eu003c/pu003e
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