Is solid-state lithium-ion battery better or liquid lithium-ion battery better?
Lithium ion batteries can be divided into liquid lithium ion batteries and solid polymer lithium ion batteries according to the different electrolyte materials used. The positive and negative materials used in polymer lithium-ion batteries are the same as liquid lithium ions, and the working principles of the batteries are basically the same.
The main difference between liquid lithium ion batteries and solid polymer lithium ion batteries is the difference in electrolytes; lithium ion batteries use liquid electrolytes; while polymer lithium ion batteries use Solid polymer electrolytes are used instead; this polymer can be 'dry' or 'colloid
Polymer lithium ion batteries can be divided into three categories:
(1) Solid polymer electrolyte lithium ion batteries. The electrolyte is a mixture of polymer and salt. This battery has low ionic conductivity at room temperature and is suitable for high-temperature use.
(2) Gel polymer electrolyte lithium ion battery. That is, additives such as plasticizers are added to the solid polymer electrolyte to increase the ionic conductivity and enable the battery to be used at room temperature.
(3) with polymer cathode material. Using conductive polymer as the positive electrode material, its specific energy is 3 times that of the existing lithium battery pack, which is the latest generation of lithium battery pack.
Characteristics of polymer lithium battery pack:
1. Use solid electrolyte instead of liquid electrolyte,
2. Use lithium ion anode material instead of carbon anode material ,
3. The shell is replaced by an aluminum-plastic composite film instead of a steel shell and aluminum shell.
4. Compared with liquid lithium-ion batteries, polymer lithium-ion batteries have a thinner shape , The advantages of arbitrary area and arbitrary shape, and will not cause safety problems such as liquid leakage and combustion explosion. Therefore, the battery casing can be made of aluminum-plastic composite film, which can increase the specific capacity of the entire battery;
5. Because the outer packaging (compared with steel shell and aluminum shell) is very light, polymer lithium-ion batteries can also use polymers as cathode materials, and their mass specific energy will be 20 higher than current liquid lithium-ion batteries. –50%.
6. In addition, polymer lithium-ion batteries have improved operating voltage and charge-discharge cycle life compared to lithium-ion batteries. Based on the above advantages, polymer lithium-ion batteries are known as the next generation of ultra-thin lithium-ion batteries.
7. The battery protection circuit is relatively simple.
Disadvantages of polymer lithium ion battery:
1. If polymer lithium ion battery is made into a thick battery of 5mm or more, its cost and other advantages do not exist. On the contrary, it is not as mature as the traditional lithium battery pack manufacturing technology.
2. Since polymer lithium-ion batteries are generally made into ultra-thin soft packs, their puncture resistance is extremely poor and their mechanical strength is very low.
3. The battery interchangeability is poor. Because the polymer lithium ion battery is customized according to the size of the buyer (product manufacturer), it is not universal, it is troublesome to replace, and the welding requirements are also very high.
4. Poor overcharge and overdischarge capabilities, once it occurs, the battery will fail and be damaged. Compared with lithium iron phosphate batteries in practical applications, it is very delicate.
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