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Lithium battery technology and BMS

by:dcfpower     2021-03-13
u003cpu003eu003c/pu003eu003cpu003e   Although nickel-cobalt lithium aluminum oxide (NCA) batteries dominate the field of electric vehicles, they may also be replaced by other technologies. Because the battery management system (BMS) is usually the weak link of electric vehicle batteries. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e   Although lithium cobalt oxide is cheap and has a high specific energy, it cannot provide the 14-18 ampere peak current required by a moped. Although nickel-metal hydride batteries have been used, their specific energy is less than half of that of nickel-cobalt lithium-aluminate batteries. Lithium-titanium batteries have lower specific energy, while lithium-manganese batteries are only slightly higher than lithium-titanium batteries. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eThe thermal runaway temperature of    lithium iron phosphate battery (LFP) is higher than 250°C, which makes it a very safe battery with a very long life. However, its low specific energy (less than half of NCA) makes its application in small mopeds not universal. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e  Nickel Cobalt Lithium Aluminate (NCA) is the compound with the highest specific energy with its specific energy of 250-290Wh/kg, but its cost is high and its safety is low. The service life is also different. Generally, the number of recharges is between 500 and 1,000, which is only about half of that of lithium iron batteries. Tesla uses thousands of 18650 nickel-cobalt lithium batteries and uses more stringent tests (to ensure that each battery in the battery pack is of equal quality) to increase the service life, so as to avoid full discharge and full charge. Like other brands of electric cars, Tesla provides an 8-year warranty to ensure that the battery capacity will remain within 80% and unlimited charging times. However, the batteries of electric bicycles are rarely fully tested, even if this will increase production. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e   Nickel-cobalt manganese (NMC) batteries have been used by Renault and BMW in their electric vehicles. According to the news provided by Samsung, its specific energy is currently 130Wh/kg (about half of NCA), but it will reach 250-300Wh/kg in 2019/2020. The cost of NMC is currently 12% to 19% higher than NCA. As it gradually becomes the mainstream battery for electric vehicles, its cost will be reduced, but the cost of NCA can hardly be reduced. NMC's life and safety are much higher than NCA, so it will become a strong competitor for electric bicycle batteries in the future. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e  Oxis Energy claims that lithium-sulfur batteries will be cheaper, have a longer life and have the highest specific energy. In July 2013, the company’s CEO stated that it and GP Battery Company are ready to goAluminum aluminate batteries are flat, but their lifespan is slightly insufficient. According to industry forum reports, Tesla is willing to evaluate new compounds after it gets a prototype product, but they have not yet got any products. Lithium-sulfur batteries have their advantages. But it will take time to become mature.u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eBattery management systemu003c/pu003eu003cpu003e  A good battery management system has a temperature sensor that can monitor the voltage of a single battery pack and package it in the battery pack Low-performance batteries were previously detected. This 100% test guarantees higher output, higher battery capacity and reduces warranty commitments. A good battery management system also records mechanical impact, deep discharge date and information, so it can Avoid false warranty applications. Excellent BMS can also detect the humidity of the battery pack to avoid accidents.u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e  Better BMS Group (by the University of Maryland CALCE Electronic Products and System Research Center, high-tech electronics experts Ericineering Spiirit and I sponsored) based on the above information, published the BBMS specifications at the 2014 Eurobike exhibition. A large electric bicycle system company asked Engineer Spirit (BCT member) to design this BMS. In particular, they do not charge Ru0026D fees and allow third parties Productionu003c/pu003eu003cpu003e   Under 4A discharge current, the difference in capacity between a good battery resistance (0.1 ohm) and a bad battery (0.4 ohm) is not obvious. The low discharge current in the warranty can make A bad battery also becomes a good battery. After the voltage is reduced, the bad battery (0.4 ohm) has a 30% faster power-off time than the good battery. A good BMS can monitor the internal resistance and actively reduce the current to delay the power-off. However, the acceleration also drops significantly. : It’s time to change the battery.u003c/pu003eu003c/pu003e
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