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Lithium-ion battery voltage, capacity, internal resistance and pulse test procedures

by:dcfpower     2021-03-11
In order to understand the characteristics of lithium-ion batteries, this article selects lithium iron phosphate batteries for a series of experiments. Lithium iron phosphate batteries are currently considered to be the best-performing lithium-ion batteries with a wide range of applications. 3.2V/12.5Ah single lithium ion battery was used in the experiment, and its specific parameters are listed in Table 1 below. This type of lithium iron phosphate battery is a power battery, which is mainly used in the field of power tools and energy storage power sources. Because it can be used in complex working conditions, it is more representative as a kind of lithium ion battery. u003cpu003eTable 1 Conventional battery indicatorsu003c/pu003eName specifications Battery type Power lithium battery pack Nominal capacity 12.5Ah Nominal voltage 3.2V Weight 353g±0.05v Maximum charging current 2C (continuous) 4C (10s) charging voltage 3.65 V±0.5v Maximum discharge current 4C (continuous) 6C (30s) Discharge termination voltage 2.0V Charging temperature 0~45℃ Discharge temperature -20~60℃; the composition of the test system Li-ion battery characteristics test is based on the battery test platform of. The main purpose of battery testing is to understand and quantify battery performance more comprehensively, and to establish data support and theoretical basis for the study of battery characteristics. The battery test platform is shown in Figure 2. The equipment used includes: lithium iron phosphate battery, Digatron automatic charge and discharge test equipment and upper computer. Digatron automatic charge and discharge test equipment conducts battery charge and discharge conditions test; the host computer communicates with Digatron automatic charge and discharge test equipment, sets the working conditions of the equipment, records time, voltage, current and other data, and then collects the data Data for processing and analysis. The battery tests in this article are all completed at room temperature. u003cpu003eFigure 2 'Battery Test Platformu003c/pu003e In the process of charging and discharging, the working current of the battery is usually expressed by the charging and discharging rate, which is equal to the multiple of the battery's rated capacity in value. In order to ensure that the battery is fully charged, the following provisions are made for the full charge system: first charge at a constant current (1/3C) to 3.65V, and then charge at a constant voltage of 3.65V until the current is less than 0.033C, then stop charging for 10 minutes, and let it stand for 1 hour. The battery experiment designed in this article refers to the national industry standard QC/T743-2006 [5], and the specific experiment content is as follows: Capacity test u003cpu003e is to measure the actual capacity of lithium-ion batteries at different discharge rates, and the test discharge rates are controlled to I u003d{0.2C,0.5C,1.0C,1.5C,2.0C}, each test is carried out in the following five steps:u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eStep 1. Fully charge the batteryu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eStep 2. , Let stand for 1hu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eStep 3. Use I as the discharge rate to discharge. Stop discharging when the battery voltage reaches 2.0Vu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eStep 4. Let stand for 1hu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eStep 5. At the end of the test, discharge the battery with a small current of 0.02Cu003c/pu003eOpen circuit voltage The characteristic test u003cpu003e is to test the electromotive force of the different remaining capacity of the lithium ion battery in the discharge process and the charging process. The test is divided into the discharge process and the charge process. The test of the discharge process is carried out as follows: u003cpu003eStep 1. Fully charge the battery u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eStep two, let stand for 1hu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eStep three, discharge the battery with constant current at a discharge rate of 1/3C, discharge for 18min; if the battery voltage is lower than 2.0V within 18min , Go to step five, otherwise go to step four;u003c/pu003eu003cpu003estep four, let stand for 1h, then return to step threeu003c/pu003eu003cpu003estep five, the test is over, discharge the battery with a small current of 0.02C u003c/pu003eu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eThe test of the charging process is as follows:u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eu003cpu003eStep one, empty the batteryu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eStep two, let stand for 1hu003c/pu003e u003cpu003eStep 3. Discharge the battery with constant current at a discharge rate of 1/3C and charge for 18 minutes; if the battery voltage is higher than 3.6V within 18 minutes, go to step 5, otherwise go to step 4;u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e Step 4. Let stand for 1 hour, then return to step 3.u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eStep 5. At the end of the test, fully charge the battery.u003c/pu003eu003c/pu003eBattery internal resistance testu003cpu003eTo test the lithium ion battery in different discharge DC internal resistance at depth, pulse charge and discharge methods are used to obtain different states of charge of lithium-ion batteries, and then the battery internal resistance tester is used to accurately test the internal resistance of lithium-ion batteries under different states of charge. The pulse discharge test follows Proceed as follows: u003cpu003eStep 1. Empty the batteryu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eStep 2. Let stand for 1hu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eStep 3. Discharge the battery with a constant current at a discharge rate of 1/2C. Discharge for 12 minutes; if the battery voltage is lower than 2.0V within 12 minutes, go to step 5, otherwise go to step 4;u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eStep 4. Let stand for 5 minutes, then return to step 3u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eStep 5 , The test is over, the battery is discharged with a low current of 0.02C pulse charge test according to the following steps: u003cpu003eStep 1. Empty the batteryu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eStep 2. Let stand for 1hu003c/pu003eu003cpu003e Step 3. Charge the battery with constant current at a discharge rate of 1/2C for 12 minutes; if the battery voltage is higher than 3.65V within 12 minutes, go to step 5, otherwise go to step 4;u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eStep 4. Let stand for 5 minutes, then return to step threeu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eStep five, the test is over, and the battery is fully chargedu003c/pu003eu003c/pu003eu003c/pu003eu003c/pu003e
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