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Load balance design of polymer lithium ion battery charging system

by:dcfpower     2021-03-22

How to deliver a lithium-ion charging management solution in a short time while meeting space and cost requirements. Polymer lithium-ion batteries are widely used in today's portable consumer electronics products. A common lithium polymer battery is a lithium ion polymer battery that uses a solid polymer separator, and uses the same charging algorithm as a lithium ion battery. As the functions of portable electronic products continue to increase and the screen size continues to increase, the use of polymer lithium-ion batteries is also changing. The number of battery charging increases every day, and it becomes very important to be able to operate the device while the battery is charging.

The traditional method of designing a polymer lithium-ion battery power supply system is to directly connect the system load to the battery. The system load will continuously discharge the lithium-ion battery, consuming the life cycle of the battery. In order to maximize the life cycle of lithium-ion batteries, it is recommended to properly terminate charging when the input power is available, and supply power to the system through the input power. In order to prevent overcharging of lithium-ion batteries, it is usually necessary to use a duration timer as an auxiliary method to turn off battery charging activities before the appropriate termination conditions are met. The minimum current detection in the constant voltage stage is a typical termination method for lithium-ion batteries. If the system continuously draws current from the lithium battery pack, the minimum current cannot be used to terminate the charge management system normally. It will turn on and off periodically, or generate errors due to timer fault conditions.

The MCP73871 polymer lithium battery pack is designed to overcome these design challenges for lithium battery pack-powered applications. MCP73871 is a compact and feature-rich single-chip solution. This device is very suitable for the design of small systems, while also extending system runtime and battery life.

The MCP73871 device is a fully integrated linear solution for system load balancing and lithium polymer battery charging management. It can choose AC/DC wall adapter or USB port power. In addition, it can also select autonomous power supply between input power and battery. The device is not only small in physical size but also requires few external components, so it is very suitable for portable applications. The MCP73871 device can automatically obtain power to the system load from a single-cell battery or an input power source (AC/DC wall adapter or USB port). The MCP73871 device fully complies with the current consumption limit specified by the USB specification. When the AC/DC wall adapter is used to power the system, the external resistor will set the maximum amplitude of the charging current of 1A, while supporting the total current of the system load and battery charging current up to 1.8A.

MCP73871 device adopts constant current/constant voltage (CC/CV) charging algorithm, with optional charging termination point. Provide 4 kinds of fixed constant voltage regulator options:

4.10V, 4.20V, 4.35V or 440V to meet the emerging battery charging needs. Under high power consumption or high ambient temperature conditions, the MCP73871 device can also limit the charging current based on the die temperature. This thermal regulation function can optimize the charging cycle time while maintaining the reliability of the device.

The MCP73871 device includes a low battery indicator, a power normal indicator, and two charging status indicators, which can be displayed using LEDs or communicate with the host microcontroller. The MCP73871 device supports an ambient temperature range of -40°C to +85°C.

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