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Military high-rate lithium battery

by:dcfpower     2021-03-22

The military application of high-rate batteries is mainly aimed at the current situation of long waiting time for secondary power consumption of tactical portable equipment, waste of battery resources, and restricted rapid response capabilities. The use of high-rate rechargeable lithium-ion batteries has good potential and prospects, but the current system should be taken into account, and on the basis of consolidating the advantages of current lithium-ion batteries in terms of cost performance, circuit control, safety, high and low temperature charging and discharging, and cycle life, it is reasonable Safely realize high rate charging.

Lithium-ion batteries have gradually become the main batteries used by the military of various countries. The high-rate lithium battery pack not only reduces the load of the equipment by about 1/3, improves the flexibility and mobility of individual tactical operations, but also extends the working time of the equipment by 2 to 3 times, maximizing the protection of a single field Timeliness and reliability of task completion.

The charging time of high-rate lithium-ion batteries (2~4h) is shorter than that of cadmium-nickel, nickel-hydrogen and lead-acid batteries (5~7h), but it still cannot meet the emergency needs in a state of war. The U.S. military generally used batteries once during the Iraq War to avoid charging problems. After the combat mission was completed that day, all the old batteries were discarded and replaced with new ones, which resulted in the logistical strength of the batteries being stronger than ammunition during the war. In order to meet the needs of the waiting time (5~30min) for recharging equipment in wartime, in theory, the lithium battery pack can be charged at a high rate (5~20C).

The status quo of the development of high-rate battery materials

Usually, the strong current during high-rate charging will cause the battery to leak, catch fire, and even explode. The improvement and development of materials is a prerequisite for high-rate charging of batteries. At present, most commercial lithium-ion batteries use LiCo02 as a cathode material. In order to improve the high-rate charging and safety performance of the battery, LiMn204, LifePO4, LisV2 (PO4) 3 and ternary materials LiNi? Co? Mn? 02, LiNi? Co? Al? 02, etc. can be used as cathode materials.

The negative electrode of lithium ion battery mostly uses carbon material. Carbon materials are cheap and easy to obtain, but the irreversible capacity of the first charge is relatively high, and the cycle performance is poor, so they are not suitable for high-rate charging. Li4Ti5O12 can be used as a non-carbon anode material with a specific capacity of 165mAh/g. The unique spinel structure can improve the cycle performance and service life of the electrode, so that the battery has good resistance to overcharge, overdischarge and safety, and meets high-rate charging Requirements.

Using positioning and feasibility analysis of high-rate batteries

In the military field, tactical portable equipment (such as communications, command, reconnaissance and positioning equipment) mostly use lithium-ion batteries. The core power supply unit can meet the power demand of equipment under multiple usage modes (handheld, backpacked, worn, and moved, etc.).

Lithium-ion batteries provide four voltage levels of 3.6V, 7.2V, 14.4V, and 25.2V, and the capacity is mostly below 12Ah. The power rating of the supporting charging equipment is mostly below 200W, and the charging current is 0.2C and 0.5C. The high-rate rechargeable lithium-ion batteries introduced abroad are mostly small and medium-sized, and they are mostly used in portable devices (such as small electric tools). The capacity ranges from a few Ah to more than ten Ah.

Whether the lithium battery pack that can be charged at a high rate is consistent with the supporting characteristics of the active battery? High-rate rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are feasible in the equipment matching system. Through product optimization and process improvement, they can be consistent with the current batteries in electrical adaptation, interface matching and power supply requirements.

Existing charging equipment does not have the ability to charge at 5-20C. The doubled increase in charging current will not only increase the power, volume and quality of the charging equipment, but also increase the power supply capacity of the military camp or mobile platform in the field. At the same time, under the premise that lithium-ion batteries have high-rate charging capabilities, the larger the current, the shorter the charging time, which is more conducive to the execution of the emergency mission of the army. Based on the above factors, based on the existing power supply system, the optimal value of the charging current should be established.

Calculating with the AC power supply capacity of the user end 220V/16A, the maximum power can be obtained as 3520W. The efficiency of active charging equipment is generally about 90%. Taking into account factors such as increased heat loss of the equipment during high-rate charging, the effective output power calculated with an efficiency of 85% is 2992W. By comparison, it can be seen that the working requirements of the charging device 10C can be met at most under the existing city power conditions. If the charging current is increased from 10C to 20C, the theoretical charging time will be reduced from 6min to 3min, but the equipment power will almost double, which will bring difficulties to the design and manufacture of power distribution systems and charging equipment. From the perspective of use, compared with the 0.5C charging of existing charging equipment, 10C charging can shorten the theoretical charging time from 2h to 6min. In summary, it is more feasible to set the high-rate charging of lithium-ion batteries to 10C.

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