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Misunderstandings in the use of lithium batteries-understand and use lithium batteries correctly

by:dcfpower     2021-03-08
u003cpu003eu003c/pu003e Nowadays, the penetration rate of mobile phones is getting higher and higher. Charging mobile phones is a must-do homework every day. But, do you know what are the characteristics of the battery in your mobile phone and how to use, store and charge it correctly? You know, some specious statements often mislead everyone. Let's start with the characteristics of the batteries used in mobile phones.   Soft-pack polymer lithium-ion batteries are now commonly used in mobile phones. Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in mobile phones, camcorders, notebook computers, cordless phones, power tools, remote control or electric toys, cameras and other portable electronic devices due to their excellent characteristics.   type comparison  The negative electrode of lithium ion battery is graphite crystal, and the positive electrode is usually lithium dioxide. When charging, lithium ions move from the positive electrode to the negative electrode and are embedded in the graphite layer. When discharging, lithium ions depart from the negative electrode surface in the graphite crystal and move to the positive electrode. Therefore, during the charging and discharging process of the battery, lithium always appears in the form of lithium ions, rather than in the form of metallic lithium. So this kind of battery is called lithium ion battery, or lithium battery pack for short.   Lithium batteries have the advantages of small size, large capacity, light weight, no pollution, high single cell voltage, low self-discharge rate, and many battery cycles, but they are more expensive. Nickel-cadmium batteries are being phased out due to low capacity, serious self-discharge, and pollution to the environment. Ni-MH batteries have a high cost-performance ratio and do not pollute the environment, but the single voltage is only 1.2V, so the scope of use is limited. The No. 5 battery we usually use is a Ni-MH battery. The characteristics of lithium battery ※has a higher weight-to-energy ratio and volume-to-energy ratio;   ※High voltage, single-cell lithium battery voltage is 3.6V, which is equal to the series voltage of 3 nickel-cadmium or nickel-hydrogen rechargeable batteries;   ※small self-discharge, can Long-term storage, this is the most prominent superiority of the battery;   ※No memory effect, lithium batteries do not have the so-called memory effect of nickel-cadmium batteries, so lithium batteries do not need to be discharged before charging;   ※Long life, under normal working conditions, lithium batteries The number of charge/discharge cycles is far greater than 500;   ※ can be charged quickly, lithium batteries can usually be charged with 0.5 to 1 times the capacity of the current, so that the charging time is shortened to 1 to 2 hours;   ※ can be used in parallel;   ※ Because the battery does not contain Heavy metal elements such as cadmium, lead, mercury, etc., have no pollution to the environment, and are the most advanced green batteries in the contemporary era;   ※The cost is high. Compared with other rechargeable batteries, lithium batteries are more expensive. The internal structure of lithium batteries   Lithium batteries usually have two appearances: cylindrical and rectangular.  The inside of the battery adopts a spiral wound structure, and a very fine and highly permeable polyethylene film separator is used to separate the positive and negative electrodes. The positive electrode includes a lithium ion collector composed of lithium and cobalt dioxide and a current collector composed of aluminum thin film. The negative electrode is composed of a lithium ion collector made of sheet carbon material and a current collector made of copper thin film. The battery is filled with an organic electrolyte solution. In addition, a safety valve and PTC components are installed to protect the battery from damage when the battery is abnormal and the output is short-circuited.  The voltage of a single-cell lithium battery is 3.6V, and the capacity cannot be infinite. Therefore, a single-cell lithium battery is often processed in series or parallel to meet the requirements of different occasions.  Charging and discharging requirements of lithium batteries  Let’s talk about the charging requirements of lithium batteries first. According to the structural characteristics of the lithium battery, the highest end-of-charge voltage should be 4.2V, and it cannot be overcharged, otherwise the battery will be scrapped due to excessive loss of lithium ions in the positive electrode. The charging requirements are relatively high, and a dedicated constant current and constant voltage charger can be used for charging. Normally, the constant current charge to 4.2V/cell will switch to constant voltage charge. When the constant voltage charge current drops to less than 100mA, the charge should be stopped.  Charging current (mA)u003d0.1~1.5 times the battery capacity, for example, for a 1350mAh battery, its charging current can be controlled between 135~2025mA). The normal charging current can be selected at about 0.5 times the battery capacity, and the charging time is about 2 to 3 hours.   Let me talk about the discharge requirements of lithium batteries. Due to the internal structure of the lithium battery, all lithium ions cannot move to the positive electrode during discharge, and a part of lithium ions must be retained in the negative electrode to ensure that lithium ions can be inserted into the channel smoothly during the next charge. Otherwise, the battery life will be shortened accordingly. In order to ensure that some lithium ions remain in the graphite layer after discharge, it is necessary to strictly limit the minimum discharge termination voltage, which means that the lithium battery cannot be over-discharged. The final discharge voltage is usually 3.0V/cell, and the minimum should not be lower than 2.5V/cell. The length of battery discharge time is related to battery capacity and discharge current. If there is a 1000mAh battery, the discharge current should be strictly controlled within 3A, otherwise the battery will be damaged.  The current lithium battery packs sold on the market are equipped with matching charge and discharge protection boards. Just control the external charge and discharge current.  So, when using mobile phone batteries, especially when charging, what mistakes should be corrected?  Avoid charging in an unsafe environment  Charging mobile phones and other electronic devices is a hassle during travel. In the survey, many participants said that they had charged equipment in gas stations, shopping malls, restaurants and even public toilets. However, charging electronic devices in these unconventional environments may cause various unexpected problems.  
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