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Overview of the development process of power lithium battery BMS

by:dcfpower     2021-03-24

1. Consideration of the functional requirements of the power lithium battery pack BMS

Functional safety: There is no unreasonable risk caused by the harm caused by the failure of the electronic and electrical system. Therefore, the functional safety development of power lithium battery BMS should make the corresponding function list according to the actual product application requirements, and the first task is to prevent unacceptable risks. Two types of failures, errors and failures should be distinguished: random and systematic failures. Systematic failures can be prevented by appropriate methods in the design stage, while random failures can only be reduced to an acceptable level. Systematic or even random failures can occur in hardware, while software failures are more systematic failures. Regarding each hazardous event, determine its ASIL level based on the three elements of its exposure probability E, controllability C, and severity S.

Starting from the requirements, including conceptual design, system design, hardware design, software design, until the final production announcement, after-sales maintenance, make corresponding functional safety requirements, must have voltage, current, temperature, etc. Basic sampling function, real-time monitoring of battery operation process, overvoltage, undervoltage, overcurrent, overtemperature and other protection functions, simultaneous SOP, SOC, SOH prediction, fault diagnosis, balance control, thermal management, etc. according to requirements Fast and slow charging management, etc.

2. BMS development process of power lithium battery

Prioritize the occurrence of possible hazardous events. According to different working conditions, different usage conditions, and environmental applications, the most likely hazardous events are analyzed, and the hazardous events are assigned to various functional departments of the system.

(1) Consider the full possibility of functional failure of power lithium battery pack BMS due to failure: summarize all functions and failures, distinguish them according to operating modes, and form a matrix of hazardous events. Through hazard analysis and risk assessment, the functional safety goals of hazardous events are defined. Combine the safety levels of the same hazardous event in different scenarios, and use the highest functional safety level as the safety level of the hazardous event. In order to prevent the occurrence of hazardous events, and then form a safety goal.

Safety goals can be considered from the perspective of preventing the occurrence of hazardous events, and safety goals can also be proposed from the perspective of preventing failures. For example, safety goals are proposed for the hazard of internal short-circuit battery fire caused by over-discharge, safety goals are proposed from the perspective of preventing hazards to prevent short-circuit battery fires caused by over-discharge, and safety goals are proposed from the perspective of preventing malfunction to prevent temperature limitation from malfunctioning. The safety goals are derived and some safety-related parameters must be specified. These parameters include: operating mode, fault tolerance time, safety status, functional redundancy, etc.

(2) Determine the functional safety requirements FSR, each safety goal means at least one functional safety requirement, although a functional safety requirement can cover more than one safety goal, each FSR inherits the highest from the related SG ASIL. Through a layered approach, safety goals are derived from risk assessment and hazard analysis, and functional safety requirements are derived from safety goals. The functional safety level of FSR automatically inherits the highest level of safety objectives.

(3) Technical safety requirements (TSR) are refined from functional safety requirements (FSR). In the entire development life cycle, technical safety requirements are to implement the technical requirements of the functional safety concept, and the intention is from the details Single-level functional safety requirements to system-level safety technical requirements. The following table shows how functional safety requirements are transformed into technical safety requirements, for reference only in the process.

(4) In the design phase of the bms system, the system and subsystems should implement the technical safety requirements as defined above, and reflect the safety detection and safety mechanisms mentioned above. Technical safety requirements should be assigned to the system design elements, while the system design should complete the technical safety requirements, the realization of the relevant technical safety requirements, the following issues should be considered in the system design, the meaning of the system architecture, the allocation of TSR to the hardware and software, and the meaning is good Software and hardware interface HIS. The hardware and software interface specifications should specify the interaction of hardware and software, and be consistent with the concept of technical security, and should include component hardware devices, which are controlled by software and hardware resources to support software operation.

System design, three principles are given in the standard: modularity, proper granularity and simplicity. In view of different security levels, it is emphasized to pay attention to design considerations of different aspects.

Technical safety requirements, directly or after further refinement, are allocated to hardware and software.

After the system design is completed, design verification must be considered. The higher the functional safety goal, the more inclined to physical verification.

(5) Functional safety design of hardware system. The detailed security requirements of hardware come from TSR, system architecture and system boundary HSI. The hardware design can start with the hardware function block diagram, and all the elements and internal interfaces of the hardware block diagram should be displayed. Then design and verify the detailed circuit diagram, and finally verify the possible failures of the hardware architecture through deductive method (FTA) or inductive method (FMEA). For the BMS system, the battery pack voltage sensor is a very important sensor, so the different failure modes of the battery pack voltage sensor should be analyzed for different ASIL levels.
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