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Reasons why lithium titanate batteries cannot be widely used

by:dcfpower     2021-03-14

Lithium titanate battery is a kind of lithium titanate used as the negative electrode material of lithium ion battery. It can be combined with lithium manganate, ternary material or lithium iron phosphate to form a 2.4V or 1.9V lithium ion secondary battery . In addition, it can also be used as a positive electrode to form a 1.5V lithium secondary battery with metal lithium or lithium alloy negative electrodes, but it still has not been widely used. Why?

Although lithium titanate batteries have excellent safety performance, the research on lithium titanate batteries has become a hot spot, but Li, Tis0: the material itself has lower electronic conductivity Rate (10-13S/cm) and lithium ion diffusion coefficient (10-10~10-13cm2/S) greatly limit the application under high-rate charging and discharging. After the particle size of Li and TiO is nanosized, the effective reaction area can be enlarged and the diffusion distance can be reduced, thereby significantly improving the rate performance of the material. However, the process of nanomaterials particles is often difficult and requires higher costs. At present, it is difficult to realize large-scale industrial production.

Lithium titanate batteries will continue to produce gas during recycling, which will cause the battery pack to swell, especially at high temperatures, which affects the contact between the positive and negative electrodes, increases the battery impedance, and affects the performance of the battery. This is also one of the main obstacles restricting the wide application of lithium titanate as a negative electrode material to batteries.

Lithium titanate (LTO) material is used as a negative electrode material in the battery. Due to its own characteristics, the material and the electrolyte are prone to interaction and gas evolution occurs during the charge and discharge cycle reaction. Therefore, ordinary lithium titanate batteries are prone to flatulence, leading to swelling of the battery core, and greatly reduced electrical performance, which greatly reduces the theoretical cycle life of lithium titanate batteries. The test data shows that ordinary lithium titanate batteries will have flatulence after about 1500-2000 cycles, resulting in failure of normal use, which is also an important reason for the large-scale application of lithium titanate batteries.

Lithium titanate batteries also have advantages: lithium titanate batteries have small size, light weight, high energy density, good sealing performance, no leakage, no memory effect, low self-discharge rate, rapid charge and discharge, and cycle Long lifespan, wide working environment temperature range, safety, stability, and environmental protection.

1. When lithium titanate is used as a negative electrode material, the potential platform is as high as 1.55V, which is more than 1V higher than the traditional graphite negative electrode material. Although some energy density is lost, it also means that the battery is safer.

2. As the lithium titanate battery can be used safely in both high and low temperature environments, it also reflects its important advantage of wide temperature resistance (especially low temperature resistance). At present, the safe working temperature range of Yinlong lithium titanate battery is between -50°C and 65°C, while the energy of ordinary graphite negative electrode battery starts to decay when the temperature is lower than -20°C, and the charging capacity is only at -30°C. 14% of the total charging capacity cannot work at all in severe cold weather.

3. The last advantage of lithium titanate is its fast charge-discharge capability and high charge rate. At present, the charging rate of Yinlong lithium titanate battery is 10C or even 20C, while the battery charging rate of ordinary graphite anode materials is only 2C-4C.

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