Secondary utilization of lithium batteries
Positive and negative current collectors. Generally, aluminum foil is used for the positive electrode, and copper foil is used for the negative electrode. It is also possible to weld some nickel tapes for connection and conduction. These are basically non-toxic. Some waste lithium battery recycling units appearing now rely on recycling these and steel shells and aluminum shells to make money. Label: Recyclable, no pollution.
The negative electrode is generally graphite, and a few may be lithium titanate or silicon-based materials. Of course, tin-based negative electrodes are also available, but they are too damn high-end and no one uses them now. Graphite is divided into natural graphite and artificial graphite. Natural graphite comes from graphite ore and then undergoes some processing. The mining of this natural graphite has serious pollution, mainly damage to the respiratory tract. You can search for it; artificial graphite, yes It is made by high-temperature graphitization of macromolecules such as petroleum coke or pitch, which is basically pollution-free. There are some recovery methods for graphite flotation in lithium batteries, but I don’t know how it’s applied now, and they can definitely be recovered. The production process of lithium titanate is unclear. The silicon-based negative electrode is basically pollution-free. According to the largest amount of graphite for evaluation. Label: Moderate pollution, unclear recovery status.
Anode: The current cathodes include lithium iron phosphate, lithium manganate, ternary materials, lithium cobalt oxide, and lithium nickel cobalt aluminate. Lithium iron phosphate is generally used as a car battery or energy storage battery and is non-toxic. Lithium manganese oxide, electric bicycle battery, non-toxic. Ternary material: Lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide, widely used, electric bicycles, electronic products, model airplanes, etc. Cobalt is toxic. Lithium cobalt oxide, digital products, mobile phones, pads, etc., moderately toxic. Lithium nickel cobalt aluminate: Unknown, the guess is the same as lithium nickel cobalt manganate.
The electrolyte is composed of organic solvents and lithium salts. Organic solvents generally include PC, EC, DEC, DMC, DME, etc., among which DMC is mild, and the others are non-toxic. Lithium salt is lithium hexafluorophosphate (the most used, and there are other lithium salts). It will hydrolyze to produce HF when it meets water, which is toxic. There are several types of shells: aluminum shell, steel shell, plastic shell, aluminum plastic film. Among them, aluminum shell and steel shell are non-toxic. Plastic shell and aluminum plastic film are white pollution. The diaphragm is generally a microporous polyolefin film, PP, PE, white pollution.
Binders, currently generally include styrene butadiene rubber SBR, polyvinylidene fluoride PVdF, and some acrylic binders. Think of these as white pollution. In addition, the materials used in the lithium battery pack processing process are mainly NMP (micro-toxic), which is used as a solvent for the positive and negative electrodes, and evaporates during the manufacturing process. Enterprises need to control their emissions and recycle them. In my opinion, there are three main types of pollution problems in lithium batteries: First, the pollution caused by cleaning the anode and cathode pulping equipment and coating equipment during the production process. These two include cathode and anode materials, NMP, glue and other materials. , Some companies do not control well (malicious speculation and do not want to control) leading to the leakage of toxic wastewater. The first point one. Cleaning the supplies used for electrolyte injection during the production process may cause electrolyte-containing water to flow into the sewer. Under normal circumstances, technical research and development personnel are likely to discharge water directly into the sewer. Second, the NMP recovery is not complete. Third, there are indeed very few lithium batteries circulating in the market that are recycled. First, the pollution of lithium batteries is low, and everyone is not paying enough attention to them; second, the benefits of recycling lithium batteries are low.
Currently, lithium-ion batteries are getting closer to civilian life, mainly due to the popularization of mobile phone digital electronic products, and the application of lithium-ion batteries has gradually expanded to electric bicycles, hybrid cars, etc. Originally some lead-acid batteries The battery market is gradually being eroded by lithium batteries, but it cannot be completely replaced. Although every household has a lot of lithium-ion batteries (disused mobile phone batteries, etc.), their recycling is currently limited to manufacturing companies. The main materials are lithium cobalt oxide and lithium nickel cobalt manganate, the precious metals cobalt and nickel, and graphite as the negative electrode. Fluid aluminum, copper (ultra-high purity), shell, etc. Just like the recycling of waste products seen on the streets and alleys, people will recycle the value, but the pollution has not been reduced at all. At present, lithium-ion batteries are liquid electrolytes, that is, a variety of organic solvents, lithium salts and other components, many of which are toxic and harmful or even carcinogenic; in the future, solid-state electrolyte lithium-ion batteries may become popular, which is another story. Compared with lead-acid, everyone knows that electric bicycle sellers are very enthusiastic about recycling lead-acid batteries and the people are also very happy. The reason is that the recycling of maintenance-free lead-acid batteries is very mature, and the society and enterprises have fulfilled their obligations and obligations. responsibility. On the user side, as long as there is no damage, there will be no pollution. The same is true for the production of lead-acid batteries. The main pollutant is lead powder, which will not be poisoned without contact or inhalation; the electrolyte is a water solvent, sulfuric acid. On the other hand, lead-acid enterprises have formed an oligopoly after the country's vigorous rectification, and the quality of their products is relatively reliable. companies are uneven. Everyone should have experienced mobile phone battery gas bulging, sudden capacity reduction, ultra-short life and other similar situations, and even explosion accidents. Once lithium-ion batteries are overcharged and over-discharged, they are easily affected. There is a danger of burning. The manufacturing process is also the same. The toxicity of organic solvents causes sewage, dust pollution, and multiple fire accidents.
The team used hydrometallurgical technology to reduce cobalt and lithium from a 48.8Wh lithium battery pack in laboratory-level tests.
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