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Self-made 12V battery charger method

by:dcfpower     2021-03-16

The self-made 12V battery charger first needs a circuit diagram of the 12V charger, so that if there is a diagram, it is easy to do it, according to the drawing, you can have a clear idea and make it quickly and easily.

Prepare the materials you need. First, you need an AC transformer with an output of AC 12V5-15A, a 6-10A high-power rectifier diode, a 25V2200uf capacitor tube, and a low-voltage power control switch. , 1 220V power plug, 1 roll of insulating tape. In addition, a rubber hose with a diameter of 0.3cm30-50cm larger than the diameter of the high-power rectifier diode is required (water-proof type, for cooling the rectifier diode), and 1 plastic empty bottle (rectifier diode) For cooling)

Connect the 220V power plug and the input end of the transformer with wires, and wrap the connector with insulating tape. Because the AC power supply has no positive and negative poles, so the input terminal is connected casually, but the input terminal and output terminal must not be mistaken. There are indications of input and output on the transformer, which must be seen clearly.

Connect both ends of the rectifier diode with wires of the same length, but the total length should exceed the length of the 30-50cm rubber hose, and then pass one end through the 30-50cm rubber hose to make the rectifier diode In the middle of the rubber hose.

Connect a wire from the 12V output end of the transformer to the positive (or negative) end of the rectifier diode with a wire and wrap the connector with insulating tape.

Connect the other wire of the 12V output end of the transformer to the positive (or negative) end of the capacitor tube, connect the negative (or positive) end and the negative (or positive) end of the rectifier diode with a wire, and use insulating tape to connect the connector wrap up.

Homemade 12v battery charger

Then connect the positive and negative ends of the capacitor tube to the wires (lead wire, that is, the wire at both ends of the battery), and connect the positive end to the low-voltage power supply control Connect the switch and connect the wire with the same length as the negative terminal, and wrap the connector with insulating tape.

The electrolyte used in the lead-acid battery (LEAD-ACIDBATTERY) is a sulfuric acid solution with the highest hydrogen ion concentration. At this time, the specific gravity of the sulfuric acid solution is about 1.3g/cm^3. No matter it is maintenance-free This solution is used in traditional batteries. (Maintenance-free is just replacing the original separator with asbestos material filled with sulfuric acid, so that the active material is not easy to fall off, and the service life is prolonged.)

The pole plate is a mesh made of lead Structure on which chemically reactive active materials are applied.

Among them: the active material of the positive plate is lead dioxide powder, which looks a little brown after being fully charged.

The active material of the negative plate is spongy lead powder, which is the gray of metallic lead after being fully charged.

The secondary board is off-white when the power is discharged.

During discharge: the lead dioxide on the positive plate is converted into lead sulfate, and the hydrogen ions in the acid are converted into water by electrons.

The lead powder of the negative plate is also converted into lead sulfate, and the sulfate radical loses electrons to produce electrons in the negative electrode.

Electrons generate current in the outer loop.

When charging: Contrary to the above process, lead sulfate is transformed into lead dioxide and pure lead with different energy states.

This is the principle of lead-acid batteries. To make, you only need to purchase the above-mentioned materials. I think you just need to understand it, and if you need it, you'd better buy it to save trouble!

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