Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in various fields due to their many excellent properties. The advantages of lithium ion batteries are as follows: (1) The voltage platform of lithium batteries is high. The average voltage of a single battery is 3.7V or 3.2V, which is approximately equal to the series voltage of 3 nickel-cadmium batteries or nickel-hydrogen batteries, which is convenient to form a battery pack
. (2) It has high storage energy density. Compared with other batteries, the lithium battery pack
density is very high. It has reached 460-600Wh/kg, which is about 6-7 times that of lead-acid batteries. This means that under the same charge capacity, lithium batteries are lighter. It is calculated that the weight under the same volume is about 1/5-1/6 of the lead-acid product. (3) The service life is relatively long. The service life of lithium batteries can reach more than 6 years. Take the lithium battery pack with lithium iron phosphate as the positive electrode as an example, at a charge-discharge rate of 1C, the highest cycle period can reach 1,000 times. (4) With high power tolerance. The maximum charge-discharge rate of the lithium iron phosphate battery used in electric vehicles can reach 15C-30C, which is very suitable for the high-intensity start and acceleration of power vehicles. (5) The self-discharge rate is very low. The self-discharge rate is one of the most prominent advantages of lithium-ion batteries. The self-discharge rate of fully charged storage at room temperature for 1 month is about 10%, while under the same conditions, the self-discharge rate is 25-30% for Ni-Cd and 30-35 for Ni-MH. %. (6) No memory effect. This means that lithium-ion batteries can be charged and discharged at any time, instead of having to wait until the power is exhausted, like nickel-hydrogen and nickel-tin batteries. (7) High and low temperature adaptability. Lithium batteries can be used in an environment of -20℃--60℃, and can be used in an environment of -45℃ after processing. (8) Green and environmental protection. No matter it is produced, used or scrapped, it does not contain or produce lead, mercury, cadmium and other toxic heavy metals. (9) The main raw materials of lithium-ion batteries, such as lithium, manganese, iron, and vanadium, are all rich resources in my country; production basically does not consume water, which is very beneficial to countries with scarce water sources. However, lithium batteries also have their own insurmountable defects, which are summarized as follows: (1) Battery performance deteriorates significantly at low temperatures, the discharge platform decreases, the output power decreases, and the available power decreases. (2) Misuse has potential safety risks. Since the constituent materials of lithium-ion batteries are very active, major accidents such as electrolyte decomposition, combustion or even explosion will occur if they are used incorrectly. (3) Different discharge rates have a greater impact on the usable capacity of the battery. (4) Both overcharge and overdischarge will cause irreversible damage to the battery. In view of the above shortcomings, generally large-capacity lithium battery pack packs adopt protection devices to monitor the battery's use process. Table 1 shows the comparison between the performance of lithium-ion batteries and other batteries. u003cpu003eTable 1 Comparison of performance of various batteriesu003c/pu003e Classification of secondary batteries Lithium-ion batteries Ni-MH batteries Ni-Cd batteries Lead-acid batteries Anode systems Lithium transition metal oxides Nickel hydroxide Nickel hydroxides Nickel lead dioxide anode systems Graphite and other layered hydrogen storage alloy cadmium oxide sponge lead diaphragm system PP/PEPP or PEPP nylon glass fiber cotton electrolyte system organic lithium salt electrolyte KOH aqueous solution KOH aqueous solution Dilute sulfuric acid nominal voltage 3.0~188.8.131.52.0 volume energy density 350~400wh/l320~350wh/l160~180wh/l65~wh/l Weight energy density 180~200wh/kg60~65wh/kg40~45wh/kg25~30wh/kg battery principle ion migration redox redox redox charge and discharge method Constant current, constant voltage charging, constant current charging, constant current charging, constant current charging, charging end point control, constant current/voltage limit, constant current limit, constant current limit, constant current voltage stabilization, safety, safety, safety, environmental protection, environmental protection, cadmium pollution, lead pollution, best work Temperature 0℃~45℃-20℃~45℃-20℃~60℃-40℃~70℃ Price (yuan/wh) 2.2~2.8/wh3.5~4.0/wh2.2~2.8/wh0.7~ 1.0/wh charger has high cost (constant current and constant voltage), general (control of constant current source), general (control of constant current source), low (regulated source)u003c/pu003e
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