The development status of aviation lithium-ion battery
Aircraft power includes main power, auxiliary power, emergency power and secondary power. The biggest difference between aviation batteries and ordinary commercial batteries is that they are used in different environments. The former work environment is extreme, and the temperature changes drastically, which affects the battery’s electrical performance and heat transfer capacity in extreme environments.
There are more stringent requirements. In addition, based on the overall load requirements of the aircraft, the weight of the battery has always been a concern in the design of the aircraft's power system. One way to significantly reduce the weight of the aircraft's energy storage system is to apply lithium-ion battery technology.
The U.S. military used small unmanned reconnaissance aircraft in both the Iraq War and the Afghanistan War. Among them, the 'dragon eye' UAV developed by the American Aviation Environment Corporation is most famous for its comprehensive It features automatic, returnable and handheld launching. Its power source
is a lithium battery pack. In 2011, the company developed a new generation of hummingbird reconnaissance aircraft with a length of only 16 cm and an hour It can fly 11 miles and can withstand winds of 5 miles per hour. It weighs less than an AA battery. Its power source is also a lithium ion battery. In 2009, the European Airbus company introduced the The lithium battery pack system provided by Saft is used as the starting and backup power supply for Airbus A350 aircraft; Boeing’s most advanced A787 passenger aircraft, its main battery and auxiliary power unit (APU) batteries also use lithium-ion batteries; from the 20th century Since the 1980s, Japanese companies began to invest in lithium battery pack research with government support. Mitsubishi, Yuasa and other companies are well-known lithium-ion suppliers. Foreign companies attach great importance to market development and protection. In aviation lithium-ion batteries The field research has taken the lead in the initial stage.
Figure 3 Li-ion battery specific energy and energy density
As shown in Figure 3. It shows that the current specific energy of lithium-ion batteries used in aircraft is about 100-150 Wh/kg, which can only meet the minimum requirements of aircraft electric power systems. In order to make the battery electric power system reach a level equivalent to that of the internal combustion engine power system, its specific energy needs Increased by more than 20 times. It is expected that solid electrolyte and nanoelectrode technologies are expected to increase the specific energy of lithium-ion batteries by more than 2 times and 5 times, respectively, but related technologies are still in the basic research stage.
Large-capacity and high-power lithium-ion batteries have very broad application prospects in the aviation field, but safety issues have become a bottleneck restricting their development in this field and need to be resolved urgently. On January 7, 2013, a Boeing 787 by Japan Airlines The auxiliary power at the rear of the passenger aircraft fuselage
The overheating of the force battery caused a fire. Not only was the battery and its outer casing seriously damaged, the leaking electrolyte and the hot gas produced also caused the structure of the aircraft body half a meter away. It was damaged (Figure 4). Just 9 days later, another ANA Boeing 787 passenger plane took off, and when it was about to reach cruising altitude, it also made an emergency landing due to a battery failure. Fortunately, 129 passengers and 8 crew members on board escaped safely. Investigation It was found that the main battery in the electronic cabin under the cockpit of the front fuselage of the aircraft was overheated and burned, and the casing was seriously damaged. On April 25, 2013, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) formally approved Boeing's 787 passenger aircraft The battery modification plan, the Boeing 787 resumed flights two days later, and the Boeing 787 lithium battery pack storm has generally subsided here.
In response to the Boeing 787 lithium battery pack storm, He Xiangming et al. Safe conduct According to the analysis, the battery system is to tightly combine the oxidant (positive electrode material) and fuel (negative electrode material, electrolyte) and seal it in a closed container to store and release energy. This accident shows that the existing response to external short circuit and overcharge and discharge The safety protection measures and technology can not cope with the short circuit in the battery. According to the current state of the art, when thermal runaway occurs, it is most feasible to quickly cool the entire battery module and prevent thermal runaway transfer between the batteries inside the module.
Figure 4 Burnt 787 lithium battery pack
Fig.4 The image of burned LIB in Boeing 787
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