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The main classification and performance comparison of power batteries

by:dcfpower     2021-03-30
u003cpu003e The current research and development of power batteries for electric vehicles at home and abroad mainly include lead-acid batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel-hydrogen batteries, iron-nickel batteries, sodium nickel chloride batteries, sodium sulfur batteries, lithium batteries, air batteries, and fuel cells , Solar cells, etc. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e From the perspective of practical applications, the performance of electric vehicle power batteries mainly depends on the following indicators: (1) Specific energy (wh/kg): The amount of electricity emitted by the electrode material per unit mass, It marks the endurance of electric vehicles in pure electric mode. (2) Specific power density (wh/l): The maximum power that a fuel cell can output divided by the weight or volume of the entire fuel cell is used to describe the ability of the battery to release greater energy in an instant. (3) Specific power (w/kg): The power provided by a battery per unit mass is used to determine the acceleration performance and maximum speed of electric vehicles, which directly affects the power performance of electric vehicles. (4) Cycle life: It is the number of cycles of battery charge-discharge cycle, which is an important indicator to measure the life of power battery. The more the number of cycles, the longer the use time of the power battery. (5) Cost: The cost of the battery is related to factors such as new technology, raw materials, production technology and production scale. Generally, the cost of newly developed high specific power power batteries is relatively high, but with the continuous adoption of new technologies, battery costs will gradually decrease. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eTable 1: Performance comparison of automotive power batteriesu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eBattery type specific energy (Wh/kg) specific power density (Wh/l) specific power (W/kg) cycle life ( Times) Cost (US$/kWh) Lead-acid battery 30~4560~90200~300400~600150 Nickel-cadmium battery 40~6080~110150~350600~1200300 Air battery 190~250190~270105 NA90~120 Ni-MH battery 60~80120~160550 ~13501000NA Sodium-sulfur battery 100150200800250~450 Lithium ion battery 90~130140~200250~450800~1200200u003cpu003e Lead-acid battery has heavy quality, poor charging and discharging function and short cycle life. In addition, lead-acid battery contains heavy metal lead, The environment is seriously polluted, and explosions under strong collisions pose a threat to the lives of consumers. Therefore, lead-acid batteries will be eliminated. The technology of nickel-cadmium battery is mature, shock and vibration, low self-discharge, stable performance, large current discharge, wide operating temperature range: 40℃-65℃, almost no maintenance. However, the current efficiency and energy efficiency are still poor, the utilization rate of active materials is low, and there is a memory effect. Its fatal disadvantage is the toxic metal element cadmium. EU countries have banned the import of nickel-cadmium batteries since December 31, 2005, and they will gradually be replaced by green batteries with better performance in the long term. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e Ni-MH battery has the characteristics of high specific power, large current charge and discharge, no pollution, and good safety performance. The disadvantage is that it has a slight memory effect and poor performance in high temperature environments. However, due to its mature technology, comprehensive With good performance, it is the most mature green battery used in hybrid electric vehicles. High-power nickel-hydrogen power batteries are ushering in an epoch-making development opportunity. More than 80% of the hybrid vehicles that have been developed or put into production use nickel-hydrogen batteries as power sources. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eu003cpu003e Lithium-ion batteries have relatively high performance, which can be quickly charged, high-powered discharge, high energy density and long cycle life, but they are expensive and have poor safety performance at high temperatures. With the continuous development of positive and negative materials and the continuous maturity of technology, lithium-ion batteries will play a leading role in the era of electric vehicles. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy of fuel into electrical energy. However, when the fuel cell generates electric energy, the reactants participating in the internal reaction undergo continuous consumption reaction. Due to its non-reusability, the reactant needs to be continuously input. After the fuel cell has a stable reaction, it needs to continuously provide fuel to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. The discharge characteristic is continuous, but it cannot be used repeatedly. The fuel cell is mainly hydrogen fuel. Although hydrogen fuel has no pollution, the technology is relatively mature, and the engine characteristics are better than the existing internal combustion engines, but the cost is high. In addition, it needs to be further strengthened in terms of increasing the driving time. With the huge infrastructure, it is difficult for these technical tasks to achieve the expected results for a long time, and commercialization is more difficult. u003c/pu003eu003c/pu003eu003c/pu003eu003c/pu003e
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