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The working principle of lithium ion battery

by:dcfpower     2021-03-16

Lithium-ion batteries use lithium-containing compounds as positive electrodes. During the charging and discharging process, there is no metal lithium, only lithium ions. This is a lithium battery pack. When the battery is charged, lithium ions are generated on the positive electrode of the battery, and the generated lithium ions move to the negative electrode through the electrolyte. During the charging and discharging process of Li-ion Batteries, lithium ions are in a state of movement from positive electrode to negative electrode to positive electrode. Li-ion Batteries is like a rocking chair. The two ends of the rocking chair are the poles of the battery, and the lithium ion runs back and forth like an athlete. So Li-ion Batteries are also called rocking chair batteries.

When the battery is charged, lithium ions are generated on the positive electrode of the battery, and the generated lithium ions move to the negative electrode through the electrolyte. The carbon as the negative electrode has a layered structure. It has many micropores. The lithium ions reaching the negative electrode are embedded in the micropores of the carbon layer. The more lithium ions are inserted, the higher the charging capacity. Similarly, when the battery is discharged (that is, the process we use the battery), the lithium ions embedded in the carbon layer of the negative electrode are released and move back to the positive electrode. The more lithium ions returned to the positive electrode, the higher the discharge capacity.

Generally, the charging current of lithium batteries is set between 0.2C and 1C. The larger the current, the faster the charging and the greater the battery heat. Moreover, charging with an excessive current will result in insufficient capacity because the electrochemical reaction inside the battery takes time. Just like pouring beer, pouring too fast will produce foam, but dissatisfaction.

For batteries, normal use is the process of discharging. There are several points to pay attention to when discharging lithium batteries:

First, the discharge current should not be too large. Excessive current will cause the internal heating of the battery, which may cause permanent damage. On mobile phones, this is not a problem, so you don't need to consider it.

Secondly, it must not be over-discharged! Lithium batteries are most afraid of overdischarge. Once the discharge voltage is lower than 2.7V, the battery may be scrapped. Fortunately, a protection circuit has been installed inside the battery of the mobile phone. If the voltage is not low enough to damage the battery, the protection circuit will work and stop discharging. It can be seen from the figure that the larger the battery discharge current, the smaller the discharge capacity and the faster the voltage drop.

Lithium-ion batteries use carbon material as the negative electrode and lithium-containing compounds as the positive electrode. There is no lithium metal, only lithium ions, which is a lithium-ion battery. Lithium ion battery refers to the general term for batteries with lithium ion intercalation compound as the cathode material. The charging and discharging process of lithium ion batteries is the process of intercalation and deintercalation of lithium ions. In the process of intercalation and deintercalation of lithium ions, it is accompanied by the intercalation and deintercalation of electrons equivalent to that of lithium ions (the positive electrode is usually represented by insertion or deintercalation, and the negative electrode is represented by insertion or deintercalation). During the charging and discharging process, lithium ions are intercalated/deintercalated and intercalated/deintercalated back and forth between the positive and negative electrodes, which is vividly called 'rocking chair battery'.

Anode reaction: Lithium ions are intercalated during discharge, and lithium ions are deintercalated during charging.

When charging: LiFePO2→Li1.xFePOa+XLit+xe

When discharging: Li1xFePO2+XLit+xer→LiFePO4

Negative reaction: lithium ion during discharge Unplug, lithium ion is inserted during charging.

When charging: xLi++xer+6C→LixC6

When discharging: LixC6→xLi++xe+6C


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