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The working principle of polymer lithium ion battery

by:dcfpower     2021-03-22

Polymer lithium battery pack, a new type battery with higher energy density, miniaturization, thinning, light weight, high safety, long cycle life and low cost.

Lithium-ion batteries currently have two types: liquid lithium-ion batteries (LIB) and polymer lithium-ion batteries (PLIB). Among them, the liquid lithium ion battery refers to a secondary battery in which Li* intercalation compounds are positive and negative electrodes. The positive electrode adopts lithium compound LiCoOz, LiNiO2 or LiMn2O4, and the negative electrode adopts lithium-carbon intercalation compound LixCs. The typical battery system is:

Anode reaction: LiCo02u003dLi1-xCoO2+XLi *+xe-

Negative electrode reaction: 6C+xLi++xe'u003dLixc-

Total battery reaction: LiCoO2+6Cu003dLi-xCoO2+LixC-

The principle of polymer lithium ion battery is the same as that of liquid lithium, the main difference is that the electrolyte is different from liquid lithium. The main structure of the battery includes three elements: positive electrode, negative electrode and electrolyte. The so-called polymer lithium ion battery means that at least one or more of these three main structures use polymer materials as the main battery system. In the polymer lithium-ion battery system currently being developed, polymer materials are mainly used in positive electrodes and electrolytes. Cathode materials include conductive polymer or inorganic compounds used in general lithium-ion batteries. The electrolyte can use solid or colloidal polymer electrolytes, or organic electrolytes. Generally, lithium-ion technology uses liquid or colloidal electrolytes, so it needs The sturdy secondary packaging to contain the flammable active ingredients increases the weight and also limits the flexibility of size. There is no excess electrolyte in the polymer lithium ion process, so it is more stable, and it is not easy to cause dangerous situations due to battery overcharging, collision or other damage, and overuse.

The new generation of polymer lithium-ion batteries can be thinner in shape (the thinnest ATL battery can reach 0.5 mm, which is equivalent to the thickness of a card), arbitrary area and arbitrary shape , Which greatly improves the flexibility of battery shape design, so that batteries of any shape and capacity can be made into batteries of any shape and capacity according to product requirements, providing application equipment developers with high design flexibility and adaptability in power solutions to maximize Optimize the performance of its products. At the same time, the unit energy of polymer lithium-ion batteries is 50% higher than that of current general lithium-ion batteries. Its capacity, charge and discharge characteristics, safety, operating temperature range, cycle life (more than 500 times), and environmental performance are all better. Lithium-ion batteries have been greatly improved.

Polymer lithium ion batteries can be divided into three categories:

(1) Solid polymer electrolyte lithium ion batteries. The electrolyte is a mixture of polymer and salt. This battery has low ionic conductivity at room temperature and is suitable for high temperature use.

(2) Gel polymer electrolyte lithium ion battery. That is, additives such as plasticizers are added to the solid polymer electrolyte to increase the ionic conductivity and enable the battery to be used at room temperature.

(3) with polymer cathode material. Using conductive polymer as the positive electrode material, its specific energy is 3 times that of the existing lithium-ion battery, which is the latest generation of lithium-ion battery.

Because solid electrolytes are used instead of liquid electrolytes, compared with liquid lithium-ion batteries, polymer lithium-ion batteries have the advantages of being thinner, arbitrarily large, and arbitrarily shaped without leakage. Due to safety issues such as liquid, combustion and explosion, the battery casing can be made of aluminum-plastic composite film, which can increase the specific capacity of the entire battery; polymer lithium-ion batteries can also use polymers as the positive electrode material, and its mass specific energy will be It is more than 50% higher than the current liquid lithium-ion battery. In addition, polymer lithium-ion batteries are better than lithium-ion batteries in terms of operating voltage and charge-discharge cycle life. Based on the above advantages, polymer lithium-ion batteries are known as the next generation of lithium-ion batteries.

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