What are the advantages and disadvantages of lithium titanate batteries?
Lithium titanate battery has the advantages of small size, light weight, high energy density, good sealing performance, no leakage, no memory effect, low self-discharge rate, rapid charge and discharge, long cycle life, wide working environment temperature range, and safety It is stable and environmentally friendly, so it has a very broad application prospect in the field of communication power supply.
When lithium titanate is used as a negative electrode material, the potential platform is as high as 1.55V, which is more than 1V higher than the traditional graphite negative electrode material. Although some energy density is lost, it also means the battery safer. Technical expert Lu Languang once said that when the battery is charged quickly, the negative electrode voltage is relatively low, but if it is too low, the lithium battery pack will easily precipitate very active metallic lithium. This lithium ion not only conducts electricity, but also reacts with the electrolyte. Release heat, produce combustible gas, and cause a fire. Because of the higher voltage of 1V, the lithium titanate avoids the negative electrode voltage being zero, which indirectly prevents the precipitation of lithium ions, thereby ensuring the safety of the battery.
Since the lithium titanate battery can be used safely in both high and low temperature environments, it also reflects its important advantage of wide temperature resistance (especially low temperature resistance). At present, the safe working temperature range of Yinlong lithium titanate battery is between -50°C and 65°C, while the energy of ordinary graphite anode battery starts to decay when the temperature is lower than -20°C.
- The charging capacity at 30 degrees is only 14% of the total charging capacity, and it cannot work at all in severe cold weather. In addition, because the lithium titanate battery has only a 1% volume change even if it is overcharged, it is called a zero-strain material, which makes it have an extremely long life. Yinlong's chairman Wei Yincang once said that Yinlong's lithium titanate battery has a lifespan of up to 30 years, which is equivalent to the life of a car, while the average life of ordinary graphite anode material batteries is only 3-4 years.
From the perspective of the whole life cycle, the cost of lithium titanate batteries is lower.
The last advantage of lithium titanate is its fast charge-discharge capability and high charge rate. At present, the charging rate of Yinlong lithium titanate batteries is 10C or even 20C, while the battery charging rate of ordinary graphite anode materials is only 2C-4C. Based on these technical characteristics of lithium titanate batteries, the industry believes that it meets the needs of new energy buses and large-scale energy storage equipment. Take a bus as an example. Generally, the mileage of a single trip does not exceed 4 kilometers, and it takes at least a few minutes for each terminal to enter the station and wait until the next departure. At this time, the disadvantage of low energy density of lithium titanate batteries will not affect the use of passenger cars, but instead reflects the benefits of fast charging of batteries. As a means of public transportation, buses have put forward higher requirements on the safety and durability of batteries.
Lithium titanate batteries have problems and shortcomings:
Although the excellent safety performance makes the research on lithium titanate batteries a hot spot, Li, Ti, 0. The lower electronic conductivity (10-13S/cm) and lithium ion diffusion coefficient (10-10~10-13cm2/S) of the material itself greatly limit the application under high-rate charging and discharging. Some scholars have shown that after the particle size of Li4Ti5012 is nanosized, the effective reaction area can be enlarged and the diffusion distance can be reduced, thereby significantly improving the rate performance of the material. However, it should be pointed out that the process of nanomaterials particles is often difficult and requires higher costs. At present, it is difficult to achieve large-scale industrial production.
Lithium titanate batteries will continue to produce gas during recycling, which will cause the battery pack to swell, especially at high temperatures, which affects the contact between the positive and negative electrodes, increases the battery impedance, and affects the performance of the battery. This is also one of the main obstacles restricting the wide application of lithium titanate as a negative electrode material to batteries.
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