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What are the classifications of lithium-ion battery electrolytes?

by:dcfpower     2021-03-12
u003cpu003eThe role of electrolyte in a lithium battery pack is like the importance of blood to the human body. It is the medium through which lithium ions can move back and forth between the positive and negative electrodes in a lithium battery pack. Without it, there would be no electron flow. , There will be no such battery, so its importance is self-evident. The analysis of electrolyte properties is explained in the original article. The electrolyte plays a role in transferring charges between the positive and negative electrodes, and should be conductive to ions and insulative to electronics. It has an extremely important impact on battery cycle performance, operating temperature range, and battery durability. For lithium-ion batteries, the composition of the electrolyte involves at least two aspects: solvent and lithium salt. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eA. Liquid electrolyteu003c/pu003eu003cpu003eThe choice of solvent is mainly based on three aspects of property requirements. That is, the dielectric constant, viscosity and the electron donor properties of the solvent. Generally speaking, a high dielectric constant is conducive to the dissociation of the lithium salt, while a strong electron donor ability is conducive to the dissolution of the electrolyte salt. The so-called electron donor property of solvent is the inherent electron loss ability of solvent molecules, and its ability determines the solvation ability of electrolyte cations. Low viscosity can increase the mobility of ions and help improve conductivity. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e   At present, binary and multi-component mixed solvents composed of two or more solvents are usually used. Common organic solvents include ether, alkyl carbonate, lactone, ketal and so on. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e  lithium salt is mainly used to provide effective carriers. The choice of lithium salt generally follows the following principles:u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e   has good stability (compatibility) with the positive and negative materials, that is to say, during the storage period, the electrochemical reaction speed at the interface between the electrolyte and the active material Small, minimizing the self-discharge capacity loss of the battery; high specific conductivity, small ohmic voltage drop of the solution; high safety performance, non-toxic, no pollution. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e  The commonly used lithium salts are as follows: Lithium hexafluoroarsenate (LiPF6), LIAsF6 will release toxic arsenic during charging and discharging, and the price is relatively expensive. Lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), which has been widely used in commercial batteries, has high conductivity and good compatibility with carbon materials. The disadvantage is that it is relatively expensive, has poor stability in solid state, and is very sensitive to water. LiCF3SO2, lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate, has good stability, but its conductivity is only half of the liquid electrolyte based on LiPF6. Lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) and lithium perchlorate (LiCl04) are both widely used salts. However, lithium perchlorate-type imine-based lithium salts, typically LiN(CF3 SO2)2, have electrical conductivity comparable to very dry LiPF6 electrolyte, and are more stable than FLiCF3SO2. u003c/pu003eu003cpu003eB. Solid electrolyteu003c/pu003eu003cpu003e  Solid electrolyte, also known as super ionic conductor or fast ionic conductor. It means that the ionic conductivity is close to (or exceeds in some cases) A type of solid ion conductive material that melts over and electrolyte solution. It is a kind of peculiar solid material between solid and liquid. It is an abnormal state of matter, in which some atoms (ions) have migration close to liquid While other atoms maintain their spatial structure (arrangement). This liquid-solid two-phase nature, and its use in energy (including production, storage and energy saving), metallurgy, environmental protection, electrochemical devices and other fields The broad application prospects have attracted wide attention from physicists, chemists and materials scientists.u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e   polymer solid electrolyte is composed of polymers and salts containing solvable polar groups The solid electrolyte material formed by complexation. In addition to showing the properties of common conductivity systems such as semiconductors and ionic solutions, it also has a plasticity that inorganic solid electrolytes can’t match. This feature makes polymer solid electrolytes useful in applications Three advantages: u003c/pu003eu003cpu003e  A thin film of any shape and thickness. Therefore, although the room temperature conductivity of the polymer electrolyte is not high, it is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of the inorganic one. Because it is processed into a thin film, The internal resistance of the battery is greatly reduced, so that the low conductivity can be compensated by increasing the area/thickness ratio; tightness-complete contact with the electrode, so that the charge and discharge current increases; response-can be well in the charge and discharge process Withstand changes in pressure and adapt to changes in electrode volume. The polymer solid electrolyte is light in weight, pressure resistant, anti-vibration, fatigue resistance, non-toxic and non-corrosive, and the electrochemical stability exhibited when it is combined with the electrode to form a battery has created more for its application. Broad prospects. At present, scientists at home and abroad are committed to making it applicable to energy storage, electrochemical components, sensors, etc., and have become the strongest competitor in the development of high specific energy lithium batteries. .u003c/pu003eu003c/pu003e
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