What are the common types of batteries?
Battery is a general term for batteries, which is widely used in the folks, but lithium-ion batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, lead-acid batteries, etc. can all be called batteries. The following is an introduction to the types of batteries that have been put into industry applications on the market.
Battery is the source of power for electric vehicles. At present, the key factor restricting the development of electric vehicles is the unsatisfactory power animal battery. The main performance indicators of electric vehicle batteries are specific energy, specific power and service life. To enable electric vehicles to compete with internal combustion engine vehicles, the key is to develop batteries with high specific energy, high specific power, long service life, and low cost.
Lead-acid battery has a history of more than 100 years and is widely used as the starting power source for internal combustion engine vehicles.
It is also a mature electric vehicle battery. It has good reliability, easy access to raw materials, and low price; the specific power can basically meet the power requirements of electric vehicles. But it has two major shortcomings; one is low specific energy, the mass and volume occupied are too large, and the mileage is short on one charge; the other is short service life and high cost of use.
The application of nickel-cadmium batteries is second only to lead-acid batteries, with a specific energy of 55W/kg and a specific power of more than 190W/kg. It can be charged quickly and has a long cycle life. It is more than twice that of lead-acid batteries and can reach more than 2,000 times, but the price is 4 to 5 times that of lead-acid batteries. Although its initial purchase cost is high, its long-term actual use cost is not high due to its advantages in energy and service life. The disadvantage is that there is a 'memory effectIt must be fully charged and discharged after about ten times of use. If there is a 'memory effectIn addition, cadmium is toxic, so pay attention to recycling during use to avoid environmental pollution caused by cadmium.
Advantages of sodium-sulfur battery: One is higher specific energy. Its theoretical specific energy is 760W/kg, which is actually greater than 100W/kg, which is 3 to 4 times that of lead-acid batteries; the other is high-current, high-power discharge. The discharge current density can generally reach 200~300mA/mm2, and can release 3 times its inherent energy in an instant; the other is the high charging and discharging efficiency. Due to the solid electrolyte, there is no self-discharge and side reactions that usually use liquid electrolyte secondary batteries, and the charge-discharge current efficiency is almost 100%. The disadvantages of sodium-sulfur batteries are that their operating temperature is between 300°C and 350°C. Therefore, a certain amount of heating and heat preservation is required when the battery is working. The high temperature corrosion is serious, and the battery life is short. Nowadays, high-performance vacuum insulation technology has been adopted, which can effectively solve this problem. There are also problems such as performance stability and unsatisfactory use safety. In the 1980s and 1990s, foreign countries focused on the development of sodium-sulfur batteries as stationary applications (such as energy storage in power stations), and they increasingly showed their superiority. In this regard, Japanese companies have made the most significant progress. As a generally optimistic electric vehicle battery in the near future, it has been listed as a mid-term development electric vehicle battery by the American Advanced Battery Consortium (USMABC). The B240K sodium-sulfur battery produced by ABB in Germany has a mass of 17.5kg and a storage capacity of 19.2Kw. The specific energy is 109W/kg, the cycle life is 1200 times, and the best vehicle drove 2300km without failure during the loading test.
Ni-MH batteries are alkaline batteries. Ni-MH batteries have a long cycle life and have no memory effect, but the price is higher. Although its initial purchase cost is high, its long-term actual use cost is not high due to its advantages in energy and service life. At present, foreign companies producing nickel-metal hydride batteries for electric vehicles have two types of unit batteries, 80A and 130A, with a specific energy of 75-80W/kg and a cycle life of more than 600 times. This kind of battery is installed on several electric vehicles for trial. One type of vehicle can travel 345km on a single charge, and one vehicle travels more than 80,000 kilometers in a year. Due to the high price, mass production is not yet available. Domestically, there have been developed 55A Cheng and 100A Ni-MH batteries with a specific energy of 65W/kg and a power density of more than 800W/kg.
As a new type of high-voltage, high-energy-density rechargeable battery, lithium-ion secondary battery has unique physical and electrochemical properties, and has a wide range of civilian and national defense Application prospects. Its outstanding features are: light weight, large energy storage, no pollution, no memory effect, and long service life. In the case of the same volume and weight, the storage capacity of lithium batteries is 1.6 times that of nickel-hydrogen batteries and 4 times that of nickel-cadmium batteries. At present, human beings only use 20% to 30% of its theoretical power. The development prospects are very bright. . At the same time, it is a truly green battery that will not pollute the environment and is currently the best battery that can be applied to electric vehicles. my country began to develop and utilize lithium-ion batteries in the 1990s, and has made breakthroughs so far, and developed lithium-ion batteries with independent intellectual property rights.