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What are the design methods of power lithium battery cooling system?

by:dcfpower     2021-03-24

The cooling performance of the power lithium battery directly affects the efficiency of the battery, and also affects the battery life and safety of use. The increase in temperature will affect many characteristics of the battery, such as internal resistance, voltage, SOC, usable capacity, charge and discharge efficiency and battery life.

In electric vehicles, the cooling system is mainly divided into two parts: one is to cool the drive motor, vehicle controller and DC/DC of the power system, and the other is to The power lithium battery pack of the power supply system and the car charger are cooled. Different thermal management systems, different component types, different weights, different system costs and different control methods make the performance of the system different. When designing and selecting the type of battery pack thermal management system, it is necessary to consider the cooling performance requirements of the battery, combined with the performance of the vehicle and the size of the space, the stability and cost of the system are also factors to be considered.

1. Air cooling

There are several important cooling methods for electric vehicle battery packs at home and abroad: air cooling, liquid cooling, and heat pipe cooling. At present, air cooling is still an important method. Air cooling is relatively easy to achieve, but the cooling effect is not good.

2. Liquid cooling

Liquid cooling has a good cooling effect, and can make the temperature distribution of the battery pack even, but liquid cooling has a high sealing performance on the battery pack It is required that if conductive liquids such as water are used, a water jacket is required to separate the liquid from the battery cells, which not only increases the complexity of the system but also reduces the cooling effect.

Generally, the cooling system is installed near the battery pack module. The principle is similar to that of the air conditioner. The cooling system is connected to a single battery module through a pipeline, and the pipeline circulates coolant (usually B2 Alcohol), take away the heat of a single battery module, the cooling system cools the glycol, and the excess heat is discharged to the outside through the fan, and the glycol recirculates into the battery module to continue to absorb the heat emitted by the battery.

3. Heat pipe technology

Heat pipe technology can meet the dual working conditions of high temperature heat dissipation and low temperature preheating of battery packs, fast response, good temperature uniformity, as a new cooling for battery packs After the method was put forward, it has developed to a certain extent, and it has become the key direction of industrial research, but due to the limitation of layout and volume, it has not been used in actual vehicles.

Schematic diagram of heat pipe technology work

From the perspective of existing electric vehicle power lithium battery cooling methods, air cooling has always occupied an important position, especially Japanese electric vehicles, which basically use air cooling systems . As the application environment has higher and higher requirements for batteries, liquid cooling has also become the preferred method of car companies, such as Tesla, BMW and other brands. Mainstream electric passenger car companies in my country have also begun to switch to liquid cooling systems. From the perspective of medium and long-term trends, liquid cooling will occupy the mainstream.

Important components of the battery pack cooling system

Different cooling systems have corresponding cooling components: the important part of the air cooling system is the fan, and the important part of the liquid cooling system is the cooling plate.

Air cooling system components: cooling air duct, fan, resistance wire

The selection of the fan directly affects the cooling effect of the battery pack air cooling system. The fan selection requirements are as follows: determine the air flow according to the heat generation rate of the battery; meet the temperature rise requirements of each module; select the fan that meets the requirements based on the air flow required by the system and the pressure drop curve of the system.

Liquid cooling system components: water cooling pipes, cooling pumps, cooling valves, cooling plates

As one of the most critical components in the battery pack liquid cooling system, the cooling plate Selection is very important. The selection of the cooling plate must meet the following requirements: the pressure drop of the cooling plate must meet the customer's requirements; the consistency requirement of the cooling water flow; the burst pressure requirement; the mechanical requirements of the cooling plate; the cooling plate must pass the vibration and shock load test; the cooling plate Must meet tolerance requirements and space size requirements.

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