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What are the requirements for manufacturing lithium battery separators?

by:dcfpower     2021-03-12

separator is an important part of lithium ion battery, and it is an important component supporting lithium ion battery to complete the electrochemical process of charge and discharge.

1. diaphragm function

Lithium ion battery consists of four main parts: positive electrode material, negative electrode material, diaphragm, and electrolyte. Among them, the separator is a kind of film with a microporous structure, which is the key inner component with the most technical barriers in the lithium battery pack industry chain. It plays the following two main roles in lithium batteries:

a , Separate the positive and negative electrodes of the lithium battery to prevent the positive and negative electrodes from contacting and forming a short circuit;

b. The micropores in the film can allow lithium ions to pass through and form a charge and discharge circuit.

2. diaphragm manufacturing materials

Basic materials: polyethylene (PE) diaphragm, polypropylene (PP) diaphragm, polyethylene (PZ) Multi-layer microporous film compounded with propylene (PP);

Product type: single-layer PP belly, single-layer PE film, double-layer PP/PE film, multilayer film

3. The requirements of lithium-ion batteries for separators include:

(1) It has electronic insulation to ensure the mechanical separation of positive and negative electrodes;

(2 ) It has a certain pore size and porosity, guarantees low resistance and high ion conductivity, and has good permeability to lithium ions;

(3) It is resistant to electrolyte corrosion and has sufficient chemical And electrochemical stability, this is because the solvent of the electrolyte is a strong polar organic compound;

(4) It has good electrolyte wettability and strong liquid absorption and moisture retention ability;

(5) High mechanical stability, including puncture strength, tensile strength, etc., but the thickness is as small as possible;

(6) Spatial stability and flatness are good;

(7) Good thermal stability and automatic shutdown protection performance;

(8) The heat shrinkage rate is small, otherwise it will cause a short circuit and cause thermal runaway of the battery. In addition, power batteries usually use composite membranes, which have higher requirements for diaphragms.

separator production process flow chart:

Common point: Orientation step, create voids in the film and improve tensile strength.

Different points: The pore-forming mechanism is different.

Related lithium battery knowledge articles:

How to do lithium battery separator testing? Polymer electrolyte lithium What?

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