What are the types of ternary lithium batteries?
Ternary lithium battery refers to a lithium battery that uses three transition metal oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese as the cathode material. Because it combines the advantages of lithium cobalt oxide, lithium nickel oxide and lithium manganate, the performance Better than any of the above single-component cathode materials, the following are several common commercial ternary lithium batteries:
1, ternary polymer lithium batteries
The ternary polymer lithium battery pack refers to a lithium battery that uses lithium nickel cobalt manganate (Li(NiCoMn)O2) as the positive electrode material and uses a gel polymer electrolyte. As the transmission medium of ion movement, electrolyte is generally composed of solvent and lithium salt. The electrolyte of lithium secondary battery mainly includes liquid electrolyte, ionic liquid electrolyte, solid polymer electrolyte and gel polymer electrolyte. The gel polymer electrolyte is composed of a polymer, an organic solvent and a lithium salt, and is prepared by mixing an organic electrolyte with a solid polymer matrix. Because it exists in the form of gel, it has the advantages of both solid electrolyte and liquid electrolyte. Since the electrolyte is confined in the polymer chain, it also has a higher ionic conductivity (up to 10%) in a wide temperature range. -3S/cm). Its biggest advantage is the high mechanical strength of the diaphragm, and the film provides a large surface area. The thinner the film, the higher the energy density, because more active materials can be embedded in the battery. In addition, its electrochemical stability is also very good, high temperature resistance, most of the high-temperature batteries on the market use polymer electrolytes.
2, ternary power lithium battery pack
The so-called power battery means that the battery supports high-rate and high-current discharge, has high power density, and releases a lot of energy per unit time. The rate-discharge capability refers to the ability to maintain the battery capacity when the charge-discharge rate increases. The rate of charge and discharge is represented by xC. 1C means that the nominal capacity of the battery can be used up in 1h, while the rate of discharge at 2C can be used for 30min.
The power/rate performance of a battery is closely related to the design of the battery, and is affected by many factors, such as electrolyte, separator, type of active material, size of active particles, and so on. Among these factors, the thickness of the electrode is the main factor affecting the large current discharge capability. The rate discharge capability can be greatly improved by thinning the electrode, because the thin electrode has a smaller electronic resistance and ionic resistance, but the thinning of the electrode will result in less active material in the electrode, so the battery capacity will be reduced. Therefore, the main technical challenge of the ternary power lithium battery is to increase the high current discharge capacity without reducing the capacity.
For the ternary power lithium battery, the most researched and most mature technology is undoubtedly the Japanese company Panasonic. The experimental stage can achieve 30C discharge, and the power type has been successfully commercialized and mass-produced. The discharge rate of the 18650 ternary lithium battery is up to 12C and the capacity is up to 3300mAh. There are also domestic manufacturers that achieve a higher discharge rate, but the stability of the battery needs to be improved, especially after a period of use, its cycle life and rate discharge capacity will be greatly reduced. Studies have reported that through particle coating and modification methods, the rate performance of lithium batteries can be improved.
3. Ternary low-temperature lithium battery pack
The temperature characteristic of the battery is an indicator of battery reliability. The performance of the battery can also be evaluated by changing the ambient temperature. The low-temperature characteristics of lithium batteries are mainly investigated from low-temperature discharge characteristics and cycle life. The most important thing for low-temperature batteries is to maintain the fluidity of the material under low-temperature conditions, so that lithium ions can freely shuttle between the positive and negative electrodes to realize the charge and discharge of the battery. For example, using an electrolyte with a low melting point to reduce the particle size of the active material will enhance the low-temperature performance of the battery. This is because the increase in the channels of lithium ions, to a certain extent, compensates for the slow movement of lithium ions at low temperatures.
Currently, ternary lithium battery manufacturers at home and abroad can basically achieve a discharge temperature of -20 degrees, and the discharge capacity is greater than 50%, and the cycle life is about 400 times, which can fully satisfy ordinary electrical appliances. And electricity scenarios. However, in special products such as aerospace, special equipment, or in severe cold environments such as northern and high mountains, lithium batteries must be able to reach a lower discharge temperature to meet harsh operating conditions. Dongguan Juda Electronics Co., Ltd. Special Cell Research Institute has gathered a large number of electrochemical experts and senior engineers and professors in the industry. With a strong Ru0026D team, it has successfully developed a low-temperature -40°C discharge with a discharge capacity of up to 67%. Ultra-low temperature lithium batteries mainly for military and special applications, and successfully realized commercial mass production.
Experimental analysis shows that three elements with different valences form a superlattice structure, and there is an obvious synergistic effect between the three components, which makes the material more stable, and the discharge platform is as high as 3.6V. It is considered to be one of the most promising cathode materials. Ternary batteries have excellent electrochemical characteristics such as high energy density, good safety and stability, support for high-rate discharge, and affordable cost advantages. They are obtained in the field of small and medium-sized lithium batteries such as consumer digital electronic products, industrial equipment, and medical instruments. It has been widely used and has shown strong development potential in the field of power lithium batteries such as intelligent robots, AGV logistics vehicles, drones and new energy vehicles.
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