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What is the difference between nickel-cadmium batteries and nickel-metal hydride batteries and lithium batteries?

by:dcfpower     2021-03-15

Nickel-cadmium batteries and nickel-hydrogen batteries and lithium batteries are currently the three most popular battery types, so what is the difference between the three? Let me explain it below.

Nicad batteries (Nicad)

Nicad batteries are very strong. They are suitable for working in extreme environments, such as cold or hot weather. Their life cycle is also longer than that of nickel-metal hydride batteries or lithium batteries, with a life cycle of about 700-1000. They are very suitable for high output deep discharge applications. On the downside, they have a charging problem called the 'memory effect'. That is, if they are not fully charged after each use. The maximum value of the last remaining power will be memorized, which will shorten the life of the battery. They can be repaired, but at least 3 life cycles are required. The advantages of using nickel-cadmium batteries are extreme temperature tolerance and deep discharge capability. Since Panasonic acquired Sanyo, the supply of high-quality batteries has declined. Panasonic has stopped producing nickel-cadmium batteries in several sizes. Therefore, the discontinued size is now only available to Chinese manufacturers. This is a low-quality battery.

NiMH batteries (NiHM)

NiMH batteries have a higher capacity than nickel-cadmium batteries, and have a smaller capacity than lithium batteries. Their weight is almost twice that of nickel-cadmium batteries. They have insignificant memory effects. They are a good medium temperature battery. You can use them, usually between -5 and 95 degrees Fahrenheit, without any disadvantages. They have good deep discharge characteristics and can store nearly twice the capacity of nickel-cadmium batteries. Their life cycle is usually lower than that of nickel-cadmium batteries, with a life cycle of 500-800 times. They are very similar to nickel-cadmium batteries in terms of charging and discharging characteristics and are safer than lithium batteries with thermal runaway. Ni-MH batteries are more prone to such a situation, that is, when you keep charging the battery pack, you will use it, and its power will immediately disappear. When you test it, it will say that it is fully charged. This is because the battery can no longer maintain the full capacity of the battery. Ni-MH batteries are better at preventing thermal runaway than lithium batteries, but not as good as Ni-Cd batteries. They have similar safety features as nickel-cadmium batteries and are more suitable for the environment than nickel-cadmium batteries. The availability of NiMH batteries is very good. Some manufacturers produce them in many countries.

is famous for its huge energy density. They can store more energy per pound than any traditional battery pack. This makes them very suitable for portable electronic products, vehicles, etc. They do not have the memory effect of nickel-cadmium batteries, and compared to nickel-cadmium batteries or nickel-hydrogen batteries, they perform best in deep discharge applications. In terms of the environment, they are more environmentally friendly than nickel-cadmium batteries because they do not pollute water sources. When used in extreme temperatures, lithium batteries are not very useful batteries. The maximum capacity of a lithium battery at -40 degrees Celsius is 12% of its room temperature capacity. Safety is another issue of lithium batteries. All lithium batteries must be controlled by integrated circuits to control the input and output voltage. If the circuit is not present, the lithium battery pack may experience thermal runaway. I believe you have all heard of the laptop on fire. This is an example of thermal runaway. Another safety issue is water. In the presence of water, the inside of the lithium battery will oxidize very quickly (may explode). The life cycle of a lithium battery is about 400 to 750. The charge and discharge curve of a lithium battery is very special. It can handle a large number of input and output voltages, and is very suitable for power tools, electric vehicles, mobile devices, etc. The availability of lithium is very good. There are several areas in the world where it can be mined, and the pricing should be stable for the foreseeable future. And it is flexible.

Related Information: Comparison of and Ni-MH Battery What is the difference between Ni-MH battery and Ni-Cd battery?


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