What kind of battery is a ternary lithium battery?
Ternary batteries, ternary polymer batteries, or ternary polymer lithium batteries refer to ternary lithium batteries. What is a ternary lithium battery pack? This is to talk about the ternary material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 used in the manufacture of ternary lithium batteries.
Structural characteristics of ternary material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2:
LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode material has a unity similar to LiCoO2 The a-NaFeO2 layered rock salt structure based on the hexagonal crystal system, and the spatial point group is R3m. Lithium ions occupy position 3a of the (111) plane of the rock salt structure, transition metal ions occupy position 3b, and oxygen ions occupy position 6c. Each transition metal atom is surrounded by 6 oxygen atoms to form a MO6 octahedral structure, and lithium ions are inserted into transition metal atoms. Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O layer formed with oxygen. Because the radius of divalent nickel ions (0.069nm) is close to the radius of lithium ions (0.076nm)
, a small amount of nickel ions may occupy 3a positions, resulting in mixed cations. This kind of mixed occupancy makes the electrochemical performance of the material worse. Usually in XRD, the intensity ratio of the (003)/(104) peak and the splitting degree of the (006)/(012) and (018)/(110) peaks are used as indicators of the cation mixing and occupancy. In general, the intensity ratio of the (003)/(104) peak is higher than 1.2, and the (006)/
(012) and (018)/(110) peaks appear to be split obviously, the layered The structure is obvious, and the electrochemical performance of the material is excellent. The unit cell parameters of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are au003d2.8622A, cu003d14.2278A. In the crystal lattice, nickel, cobalt, and manganese exist with valences +2, +3, and +4, respectively. At the same time, there are also a small amount of Ni3+ and Mn3+. In the process of charging and discharging, in addition to the electron transfer of Co3+/4+, there are also The electron transfer between Ni2+/3+ and Ni3+ also makes the material have a higher specific capacity. Mn4+ only serves as a structural substance and does not participate in the redox reaction. Koyama et al. proposed two models describing the crystal structure of LiNi1sCou3Mnm3O2, namely a complex model with a superstructure [Ninaco1sMn1] layer of the R30° type, and the unit cell parameter au003d4.904
Ac u003d13.884A. The lattice formation energy is -0.17eV and the simple model of CoO2, NiO2 and MnO2 layer orderly stacking, the lattice formation energy is +0.06eV. Therefore, under suitable synthesis conditions, the first model can be formed. This crystal type can minimize the change in the volume of the crystal lattice and reduce the energy during the charging and discharging process, which is conducive to the stability of the crystal lattice.
The electrochemical performance and thermal stability of the ternary material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2
LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as a lithium ion battery cathode material has high Lithium ion diffusion capacity, the theoretical capacity is 278mAh/g. During the charging process, there are two platforms between 3.6V and 4.6V, one is around 3.8V and the other is around 4.5V, mainly due to Ni2+/Ni4+ Two electric pairs with Co3+/Co4+, and the capacity can reach 250mAh/s, which is 91% of the theoretical capacity. In the voltage range of 2.3V~4.6V, the discharge specific capacity is 190mAh/g, and after 100 cycles, the reversible specific capacity is more than 190mAh/g. The electrical performance test is carried out in the potential range of 2.8V～4.3V,
2.8V~4.4V and 2.8V~4.5V, and the discharge specific capacity is 159
mAh/g, 168 mAh/g and 177 mAh/g are charged and discharged at different temperatures (55°C, 75°C, 95°C) and different rates of discharge. The structure of the material changes little, has good stability, and has good high-temperature performance. But the low temperature performance needs to be improved.
The safety of lithium-ion batteries has always been an important measure of commercialization. The thermal effect of the electrolyte with the charging state is the key to whether the cathode material is suitable for lithium-ion batteries.
DSC test results show that the charged LiNi1gCo1gMn1/3O2 has no peak at 250~350℃, LiCoO2 has two exothermic peaks at 160℃ and 210℃, and LiNiO2 has an exothermic peak at 210℃ . Ternary materials also have some exothermic and endothermic reactions in this temperature range, but the reaction is much milder.
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