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What's going on with the decrease in the capacity of lithium batteries?

by:dcfpower     2021-03-19

After the lithium battery pack has been used for a certain period of time, the battery can last for a shorter period of time. In fact, this is caused by the loss of the capacity of the lithium battery. So what is the reason for the loss of the capacity of the lithium battery pack?

Possible reasons:

(1) The deposited lithium coats the surface of the negative electrode, which blocks the insertion of lithium, and reduces the amount of recyclable lithium, resulting in a decrease in discharge efficiency and capacity loss.

(2) Metal lithium is usually formed between the negative electrode and the separator, which may block the pores of the separator and increase the internal resistance of the battery. Fast charging, excessive current density, severe polarization of the negative electrode, and more obvious lithium deposition.

(3) The production of electrochemical inert substances destroys the capacity balance between the electrodes, resulting in capacity loss, which is irreversible.

(4) Self-discharge. Self-discharge refers to the natural loss of electric capacity when the battery is not in use. The capacity loss caused by the self-discharge of lithium-ion batteries can be divided into two situations: one is reversible capacity loss; the other is irreversible capacity loss. Reversible capacity loss means that the lost capacity can be restored during charging, while the irreversible capacity loss is the opposite. The positive electrode and the solvent will interact with the microbattery to generate self-discharge and cause irreversible capacity loss.

(5) Electrode instability.. The positive electrode active material will oxidize and decompose the electrolyte in the charged state, causing capacity loss. In addition, the factors affecting the dissolution of the positive electrode material include the structural defects of the positive electrode active material, the excessively high charging potential and the content of carbon black in the positive electrode material. Among them, the structural change of the electrode during the charge and discharge cycle is the most important factor.

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