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Which is better, lithium battery or nickel-metal hydride battery

by:dcfpower     2021-03-20

Which one is better, lithium battery pack or Ni-MH battery? First of all, it depends on which product the battery is used in, and secondly, the economic benefit of the product is compared to better know which is better between lithium battery and nickel-metal hydride battery.

For example: Lithium batteries are more suitable for mobile phones than NiMH batteries, but for digital cameras, because digital cameras require a lot of current, and the power consumption is much larger than that of mobile phones. , Ni-MH batteries are slightly better in the large current output.

Let’s take a look at the advantages and disadvantages of lithium batteries and nickel-metal hydride batteries:

The advantages and disadvantages of nickel-metal hydride batteries:

Advantages of nickel-metal hydride batteries

1. High energy density, 1.5 times that of nickel-cadmium batteries;

2. The battery voltage is 1.2v-1.3v, which is comparable to nickel-cadmium batteries. Equivalent;

3. No memory effect, long cycle life;

4. High current discharge, strong ability to withstand overcharge and overdischarge;

5 .No pollution, green battery.

Disadvantages of nickel-metal hydride batteries:

1. The price is higher than that of nickel-cadmium batteries, and the anode material is rare earth alloy materials;

2. The self-discharge speed is high.

The advantages and disadvantages of lithium batteries:

The advantages of lithium batteries

a. High voltage: the working voltage of single battery is as high as 3.7- 3.8V (the cell voltage can be charged up to 4.2V), which is 3 times that of Ni-Cd and Ni-H batteries.

b. Large specific energy: The actual specific energy that can be achieved at present is about 555Wh/kg, that is, the material can reach a specific capacity above 150mAh/g (3-4 times that of Ni-Cd, 2-3 Times Ni-MH), which is close to about 88% of its theoretical value.

c. Long cycle life: generally can reach more than 500 times, even more than 1000 times, and lithium iron phosphate can reach more than 2000 times. For electrical appliances with low current discharge, the battery life will double the competitiveness of electrical appliances.

d. Good safety performance: no pollution, no memory effect. As the predecessor of Li-ion, the lithium battery pack is prone to short-circuit due to the formation of dendrites, which reduces its application fields: Li-ion does not Containing cadmium, lead, mercury and other elements that pollute the environment: a major disadvantage of Ni-Cd batteries of some processes (such as sintering) is the 'memory effectThe problem in this regard.

e. Small self-discharge: The self-discharge rate of fully charged Li-ion at room temperature after 1 month storage is about 2%, which is much lower than 25-30% of Ni-Cd, Ni, MH Of 30-35%.

f. Fast charging and discharging: The capacity can reach more than 80% of the nominal capacity after 30 minutes of charging, and the ferrophosphorus battery can be charged to 90% of the nominal capacity in 10 minutes.

g. High working temperature range: working temperature is -25~55°C. With the improvement of electrolyte and positive electrode, it is expected to expand to -40~70°C.

Disadvantages of lithium batteries:

a. Aging: Unlike other rechargeable batteries, the capacity of lithium-ion batteries will slowly decline, which has nothing to do with the number of times of use, but with temperature. The possible mechanism is that the internal resistance gradually increases, so it is easier to reflect in electronic products with high working current. Replacing graphite with lithium titanate seems to extend life.

Relationship between storage temperature and permanent capacity loss rate:

Charge power Storage temperature 0℃ Storage temperature 25℃ Storage temperature 40℃ Storage temperature 60℃

40 %~60% 2%/year 4%/year/6 15%/year 25%/year

100% 6%/year 20%/year 35%/year 80%

b. Intolerance of overcharge: When overcharged, the excessively inserted lithium ions will be permanently fixed in the crystal lattice and can no longer be released, which can lead to short battery life and gas production, resulting in air bulging.

c. Intolerance of over-discharge: During over-discharge, too much lithium ions will be released from the electrode, which can lead to the collapse of the crystal lattice, thereby shortening the life span and causing gas bulging.

d. Multiple protection mechanisms are required: Because misuse will reduce the life span and may even cause an explosion, a variety of protection mechanisms have been added to the design of lithium-ion batteries.

Protection circuit: prevent overcharge, overdischarge, overload and overheating.

Vent: Avoid excessive pressure inside the battery.

Separator features: high puncture resistance to prevent internal short circuit; when the internal temperature of the battery is too high, it can melt to prevent the passage of lithium ions, block the battery reaction, and increase the internal resistance (to 2kQ ).

Other information related to nickel-metal hydride batteries:

Which is better, nickel-metal hydride batteries and nickel-cadmium batteries?

How to repair Ni-MH battery

How to calculate the charging time of Ni-MH battery?

Which is better, Ni-MH battery or lithium battery?


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