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Why are steel shell lithium batteries made into cylindrical shape, such as 18650

by:dcfpower     2021-02-20
u003cpu003eu003cpu003eIn the early days, lithium batteries were steel shell batteries, and the outer shell material was steel. Because the metal expansion coefficient of steel material is not as good as aluminum shell material, when the battery is short-circuited, the probability of explosion is higher than that of aluminum shell. Early lithium battery pack In the field of consumer electronics, it is mainly used in notebooks and mobile phones. The notebook uses 18650. The mobile phone is the first to use a square aluminum shell cell to replace the steel shell cell. With the development of ultra-thin smart phones, mobile phone lithium batteries have now developed to the third generation, polymer batteries made of aluminum-plastic film. u003c/pu003eu003c/pu003eThe definition of cylindrical lithium battery pack: For example, type 18650, it refers to a cylindrical battery with a diameter of 18mm and a length of 65mm. In fact, the cylindrical steel shell cell is not only 18650, there are other sizes such as 26650. u003cpu003eu003c/pu003eWhy is it cylindrical? My understanding is that the rounded sides can distribute the pressure and improve the safety performance of the battery in the case of strong squeezing. Another advantage of cylindrical batteries is that the mass production is simpler. When the winding machine winds the separator and the positive and negative electrodes, it can be automated. A single size such as 18650 can produce batteries of the same size and different capacity formulations. cost. As the technology of cylindrical batteries becomes more and more mature, for example, different types of lithium-ion batteries can be used on 18650 (lithium iron phosphate, lithium cobalt oxide, lithium titanate). There is no doubt that the battery of Apple's macbook is the current polymer battery. Pioneer, now domestic thin and light notebooks have turned to square polymers, and few manufacturers are still using the outdated 18650 design, unless it is for lower cost control. Some people may not help asking, isn’t Tesla’s electric car made of 18650 battery bricks? Isn't it advanced? My answer is: Tesla’s expertise is in circuit monitoring. His great advantage is that he can effectively monitor each battery in the battery pack in real time, but it is not a battery innovation, but a car innovation. . The battery of the TESLA electric vehicle uses the NCA series (nickel-cobalt-aluminum system) 18650 lithium cobalt oxide battery provided by Panasonic, with a single battery capacity of 3100 mAh. Still based on cost, the current polymer battery surface is made of aluminum plastic film, and the soft package is not resistant to impact and collision. If the polymer is used, Tesla will not be able to pass the US automotive safety inspection certification. With the rise of smart wearable devices and the overall development of smart phones, small-size polymer batteries will become more and more widespread in the digital field. Aluminum shell batteries will be gradually eliminated, and 18650 will continue to be used in the field of electric bicycles and electric vehicles until the impact and collision safety problems of polymer batteries are effectively solved. u003c/pu003e
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